Presentation on theme: "International Trends in Engineering and Implications for the South Pacific Dr Andrew Cleland, Chief Executive."— Presentation transcript:
International Trends in Engineering and Implications for the South Pacific Dr Andrew Cleland, Chief Executive
Hierarchical Model for Occupations Level OneThe industry field is recognised as a community Level TwoA qualification regime is defined Level ThreeThe industry field is governed by a framework of professional institutions Level FourThe nine tests of public obligation for a profession are satisfied Level FiveThe profession is regulated by law for the benefit of the public (i.e. the profession is given statutory enforcement power)
The nine tests The profession must be controlled by a governing body which in professional matters directs the behaviour of its members. The governing body must set adequate standards of education as a condition of entry and thereafter ensure that students obtain an acceptable standard of professional competence. Training and education continue throughout the member's professional life. The governing body must set the ethical rules and professional standards which are to be observed by the members. They should be higher than those established by the general law.
The nine tests (cont.) The rules and standards enforced by the governing body should be designed for the benefit of the public and not for the private advantage of the members The governing body must take disciplinary action, if necessary, expulsion from membership should the rules and standards it lays down not be observed or should a member be guilty of bad professional work. Work is often reserved to a profession by statute - not because it was for the advantage of the members but because, for the protection of the public, it should be carried out only by persons with the requisite training, standards and disciplines.
The nine tests (cont.) The governing body must satisfy itself that there is fair and open competition in the practice of the profession The members of the profession, whether in practice or in employment, must be independent in thought and outlook. They must not allow themselves to be put under the control or dominance of any person or organization which could impair that independence. In its specific field of learning, a profession must give leadership to the public it serves.
Key characteristics of a professional body Collegially determines and sets relevant standards –Academic qualifications –Initial achievement of professional competence –Continuing professional competence retention –Technical standards/codes of practice Sets and maintains a Code of Ethics that is independent of employers (peer-based) Provides public good leadership
Differences in competence levels Main distinction is in nature of engineering problems tackled and engineering activities undertaken: *Complex (professional engineer) *Broadly-defined (engineering technologist) *Well-defined (engineering technician) But all have the same ethical obligations !
Demonstrating competence for independent practice Accredited University Qualification 3-7 years experience Evaluation by experienced engineers Membership of Professional Body Lifetime professional standing Mentoring & Graduate Development programme Initial Competence Assessment Registration e.g. CPEng Regular (5 yearly) Current Competence Assessments Continuing professional development
Competence and Professional Standing Quality Marks Group Current Competence Professional standing Typical Qualification Professional engineer CPEng, IntPE Professional Member MIPENZ BE (4 years) Engineering technologist ETPract, IntET Technical Member TIPENZ BEngTech (3 years) Engineering technician CertETn (R.E.A.)* Associate Member AIPENZ DipEng/ NZCE (2 years)
Professional engineers Washington Accord degree accreditation for BE (recognition in 11 other nations) Competence assessment leads to: MIPENZ (professional standing), CPEng (current competence under CPEng Act) IntPE(NZ) (international benchmarked competence standard) 2002 Act protects the title “Chartered Professional Engineer” to assist the public identify good quality engineers – IPENZ appointed Registration Authority APEC Engineer and Engineers Mobility Forum Agreements involving 17 nations underpin the IntPE quality mark to assist international mobility
Engineering technologists Sydney Accord degree accreditation for BEngTech (recognition in 6 other nations) Competence assessment leads to: TIPENZ (professional standing) ETPract (commenced 1 July 2007) IntET(NZ) (commenced 1 July 2007) Engineering Technologist Mobility Forum Agreement involving 7 nations established the IntET quality mark to assist international mobility
Engineering technicians Dublin Accord qualification accreditation for NDipE (4 nations) – IPENZ provisional status from 2006, aiming for signatory status from 2010 Competence assessment leads to: AIPENZ (professional standing) CertETn (commenced 1 July 2007) 1961 Engineering Associates Registration Act still operates a non-current competence registration system, but under review by Government No international quality marking scheme yet developed
Relevant Acts and Regulations Building Act – to provide certification – structure, fire, geotechnical – CPEng req’d A number of OSH regulations – mechanical, structural, electrical A few others e.g. in water regulations CPEng recommended in a number of NZ Standards (note Stds not compulsory unless inserted in Regulations)
Annual costs of gaining and maintaining quality marks (excl. GST) Registration fee (includes brand development, ethics & discipline)$285 Professional body services: (professional development support engineering practice support),$270 – 360
Educational Accords Based on “substantial equivalence” of accreditation systems Exemplar graduate profiles Graduates receive credit for having qualification equivalent to local one Signatories reviewed six-yearly – observation of our processes Annual governance meetings – admissions etc. Secretariat at IPENZ
Washington Accord (1989) USA Canada UK New Zealand Australia Ireland Hong Kong China (1995) South Africa (1999) Japan (2005) Singapore (2006) Korea (2007) Chinese Taipei (2007) Provisional Germany Russia Malaysia Sri Lanka India
Sydney Accord (2001) Canada UK New Zealand Australia Ireland Hong Kong China South Africa Provisional USA
Dublin Accord (2003) Canada UK Ireland South Africa Provisional USA New Zealand
Mobility Agreements Establish national sections of the relevant international register Each register has a title for use by registrants Based on passing a benchmarked competence assessment/examination, holding an Accord qualification, 2 yrs responsible experience, 7 yrs post-graduation Brand value – helps employment mobility Little value in streamlining entry to other nations’ regulatory systems Members reviewed 6-yearly Annual governance meetings Secretariat at IPENZ
APEC Engineer (2000) USA Canada New Zealand Australia Hong Kong China Japan Malaysia Korea Indonesia (2001) Thailand (2003) Philippines (2003) Singapore (2005) Chinese Taipei (2005)
Engineers Mobility Forum (1997) USA Canada New Zealand Australia Hong Kong China UK Ireland South Africa Japan (1999) Malaysia (1999) Registers opened from 2003 Korea (2000) Singapore (2007) Sri Lanka (2007) Provisional Chinese Taipei India Bangladesh
Engineering Technologists Mobility Forum (2001) USA Canada New Zealand Hong Kong China UK Ireland South Africa Registers opened from 2007
International benchmarking/credit WA, SA, DA accreditation provides both an international quality standard (e.g. used by immigration, to assist employment mobility), and credit for regulatory purposes IntPE and IntET provide an international quality mark – to date may only assist employment mobility IPENZ gives credit for IntPE and IntET entrants to NZ for regulatory purposes
What is the engineering knowledge used in industry? Codes, standards, proprietary software etc. Rarely working from first principles where a high degree of standardisation exists Exceptions – architecturally-designed buildings – structures, fire design, geotechnical The more from first principles, the more peer review Tension to ensure that the knowledge taught is principles, but with sufficient relevant applications, not just current codes of practice
Performance based requirements Prescriptive requirements Fast Moving Slow Moving Engineer uses first principles and regulation of self through the code of ethics – QA achieved through peer review Engineer uses Standards, (acceptable solutions in Building Code), Low judgement – “ technical ” Engineer uses Standards, industry codes and verification methods Unstable zone Nothing can exist in this quadrant for long - failures
Short courses for industry Creators of demand by industry: –Change in regulatory environment –New standards or codes of practice, guidance notes –New knowledge from research that might be applied Demand for half, full and two day courses
IPENZ service areas Competence and qualification recognition Professional development support Leadership on national & community issues Engineering practice support and learned society activities Renewal of the profession (attracting young people to engineering and technology)
29 South Pacific Island Engineering Workshop – October 2007 Fiji – Fiji Institution of Engineers Samoa – Institution of Professional Engineers Samoa Tonga Vanuatu Cook Islands
30 Typical Issues Historic reliance on aid from developed nations (especially Australia and NZ) for infrastructure projects – brought good engineering standards with it Local capital increasing via tourism Capital from Asia increasing Engineering standards no longer intrinsically packaged with aid money
31 Typical Issues (continued) Cyclones, earthquakes, fire all lead to substantial structural damage Construction standards variable – poor materials Waste water treatment – lagoon pollution Water treatment variable Roading variable quality Electricity supply unreliable – diesel dominant Telecommunications improving
32 Capability, education and professional development Aid-funded projects are not developing local capability or capacity. Construction capability is very low (technical and trades), and there is poor supervision – the clerk of works role is poorly performed. Training of construction workers is inadequate and many practices are unsafe. Access to codes of practices and relevant standards is poor – new engineering knowledge and knowledge of methods for handling new materials which will inevitably arrive is lacking. The engineering workforce is ageing, and there are issues in attracting young people into engineering education.
33 Technical standards Materials quality and variability of materials is an ongoing issue. Poor capability to test materials and quality assure their reliability Lack of a systematic building code which is practical for a number of nations. Cyclones, tsunami and earthquakes not dealt with well in design of public infrastructure and private sector construction projects. Asset degradation due to harsh tropical conditions Much investment bypasses Australian or New Zealand technical standards, especially if the source of capital is private or from Asia. Access to technical standards by engineers in the islands is difficult. Some technology brought in from overseas is inappropriate for the service conditions in the islands.
34 Professional identity for engineers Qualification recognition, especially for those educated in Fiji and Papua New Guinea is an issue, Lack of a peer body for creating status and standing for engineers, and as a means to attract focus to engineering issues, Lack of specialist engineers in some disciplines, especially those in high demand globally, Enforcement of disciplinary actions against poor performers is difficult, Achievement of robust competence assessments is difficult.
35 Suggestions for Improvement Development of a South Pacific Building Code, and regular updating of this document. Development of suitable compliance documents e.g. standards – this might involve Australia/New Zealand standards becoming South Pacific in coverage as well. Development of means to ensure reliable and accurate construction materials testing in all nations Consistent restriction of professional engineering work to competent engineers. Internationally-benchmarked competence standards for recognising engineers competent to practice in South Pacific conditions. Benchmarking of Fijian and PNG qualifications in relation to the competence standards.
36 Suggestions for improvement (cont.) Creation of professional identity for engineers, e.g. through an association Improved access to professional development, perhaps facilitated by IPENZ. Competent regulators – competence developed by productive relationships with leading Building Consent Authorities in New Zealand. Improved engineering trades training throughout the South Pacific – IPENZ might act as an advocate for funding for this capability-raising need.
37 South Pacific Engineers Association (SPEA) Competence and standards: Technical standard setting e.g. building code, technical standards, codes of practice. Competence and qualification standard setting. Good engineering office practice guideline establishment. Competence assessment processing. Accrediting/qualification recognition actions. Disciplinary actions and complaints processing. Handling of appeals.
38 South Pacific Engineers Association (SPEA) (cont.) Professional development: Broker of professional development opportunities delivered locally, both to engineers and to associated occupations e.g. construction personnel. Networking opportunities for engineers. Mentoring of young engineers. Improved access to engineering knowledge, possibly including access to technical standards.
July 2008 Workshop Desire to involve Papua New Guinea – involvement of IEPNG Initial focus on support of people and competence standards – SPEA and associated competence registers Need to establish a credible body before funding is sought for technical standards
Role of IPENZ Provides underpinning administration – membership database etc. Provides copies of publications, distributes newsletters etc. Operates web site Takes overall financial risks Provides assistance with short course development, accreditation etc. Trains assessors, moderates assessment process
Role of SPEA Council Governance Representation to key stakeholders in region Set overall work programme, including regional activities Manages interface with IPENZ National Office (IPENZ is in attendance but not part of decision making)
Role of Chapters Run national programme (a proportion of SPEA subscription is transferred to national chapter to fund this) Co-ordinate regional events held in its nation Manage relationship to own Government and regulators Note: to achieve financial viability it will not be possible to only join local chapter and not SPEA
SPEA Registers Managed by IPENZ in parallel to NZ registers Assessors trained by IPENZ Results of assessments go through IPENZ moderation process Recommended that in nations where local registers also exist the local registration body accepts the SPEA register assessment outcome to achieve consistency
DescriptionTitle Post- nominal Equivalent NZ register Professional engineer Professional Engineer (South Pacific) PE(SP)Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng) Engineering technologist Engineering Technology practitioner (South Pacific) ETPract(SP)Engineering technology practitioner (ETPract) Engineering technician Certified Engineering Technician (South Pacific) CertETn(SP)Certified engineering technician (CertETn)
DescriptionTitle Post- nominal Definition FellowFSPEAMeets equivalent standard to IPENZ Fellowship Professional engineer Professional member MSPEACompetence demonstrated at professional engineer level Engineering technologist Technical member TSPEACompetence demonstrated at engineering technologist level Engineering technician Associate member ASPEACompetence demonstrated at engineering technician level Engineering graduate Graduate member GSPEAHolds a recognised engineering qualification Trades people, planners, certifiers etc. Affiliate member No post nominal Interested in involvement, but holds no engineering qualification
Annual feesSamoaFijiTongaCook Is.VanuatuN.Z. Service Centre fee $38.00 Publications$25.00 Regional component $75.00 National chapter $50.00$30.00 Membership$188.00$168.00 Registration$140.00 Total$328.00$308.00
Establishment timetable Obtain buy-in from all national bodies/committees Launch event early May 2009 (inaugural Council meeting) – also assessor training, membership services commence September/October 2009 – 2 nd Council meeting, first subscriptions payable, further assessor training January 2009 – registers open March 2010 – first AGM 2010 - Professional development course delivery commences
Subsidy from IPENZ Meet establishment costs Marginal costing of services – publications etc. Fund own participation Web site and electronic communications to Members Could be appointed accrediting agency by FIE, IEPNG and IPES