Backend Longitudinal record-keeping Respondent record built up over multiple interviews Automated merging of lab results Lab results received from NHLS automatically matched & merged to update respondent records Appointment reminders Reminders sent ahead of each follow-up
Automated reports Progress reports Rolling 7-day report distributed via email Operational reports Daily export of key tracking data for active respondents Analysis data sets Merged longitudinal export for analysis
Support, logistics & capacity building Training Training provided to cover survey design, data collection & management Logistics Assistance with handset procurement, setup & airtime monitoring Local capacity building Handover of core support activities to local resources
Data quality How can data integrity be ensured and on-going participant engagement encouraged?
Data quality benefits Improved data integrity Prevent input errors with relevant skip logic and validation Check digits Issue and validate participant identifiers Tried-and-tested instruments Utilise tested base of questionnaires and protocols No separate data capture No secondary data entry stage eliminates transcription errors
Data quality benefits Server-side heuristics Alerts issued when sanity/integrity checks fail Data auditing Automatic auditing of data modifications by authorised personnel Data authenticity Verify data authenticity through meta data & respondent mobile follow-up Reduced attrition Support for visit scheduling, automated SMS appointment reminders and respondent airtime incentives reduce attrition rates
Data availability How easy will it be to access, analyse and use data?
Data availability benefits Cloud architecture No server-side hardware required Offline usage Captured data cached on handset until network available Real-time Real-time access to review, export, chart and map responses
Data availability benefits Data control Complete control and ownership of data collected Automated progress reports Progress reports generated and distributed automatically on daily basis to team leaders and coordinators Extensible Generic and open API allows data to be integrated into any other system
Data security How can respondent confidentiality be ensured?
Data security benefits Confidentiality "Store-and-forward" and encrypted transmission Controlled sharing Ability to define dynamic data sets and provide access to limited user group Field visibility control Hide specific fields from selected users (e.g. mobile number)
Cost Is it affordable and financially sustainable?
Cost Remove paper process costs No printing, data entry, document transportation and storage Reduce errors and associated costs Detect and correct errors in the field Low cost handsets Choose from over 500 handset options, including entry-level feature phones (around $50 each) Scalable Select appropriate scale – a phased approach is possible
Cost Technology Assuming large-scale sample (e.g. SA = 12k baseline, 3k follow-up, 1,100 fields) Hardware, software, hosting, training & consulting Budget $90k initially Budget $45k per annum for annual evaluation Capacity building of local resources included
Concluding Remarks Using mobiles, data flow can be simplified and improved significantly Mobile technology provides a real alternative to paper Migration from evaluation to surveillance
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