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Basic Principles of Government

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1 Basic Principles of Government
Define Government Government Systems Government Forms LEQ: why is a government system necessary?

2 “man is a political animal”
- Aristotle, Politics

3 The State Many concepts of government, such as politics, democracy, and republic, originated in ancient Greece (Aristotle) and Rome. Politics: affairs of state, from polis a Greek city-state. State (political): political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority. Nation-state: A political unit consisting of an autonomous state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing a common culture, history, and language.

4 Four Characteristics of the State
Population – Each state has a defined group of people 2. Territory – Each state has known boundaries. 3. Sovereignty – Each state has absolute power within its territory. 4. Government – Each state has a government through which it accomplishes it’s goals.

5 Political Legitimacy Why does “politics” have a negative connotation sometimes? What makes a government legitimate?

6 Government v. Politics Government Politics 1. Institution 2. makes and enforces its public policies (goals/law). 1. Process 2. Decides how power and resources are distributed 3. Practice or profession of conducting political affairs. Example: The right to vote (Gov.) – Voting (Politics)

7 Types of Public Policies
-Taxes -Defense -Education -Crime -Healthcare -Environment -Civil Rights -The List is Endless

8 Government Systems How is Power distributed?
Federal System (United States) Unitary System (UK, France) Confederal System (Articles of Confederation, C.S.A.)

9 Federal System Power of Government divided between a central and state/local governments. Both derive power from a higher authority (ie. A constitution)

10 Federalism What are examples of Federalism in the U.S. Constitution?
“If their [the peoples’] rights are invaded by either [State or Federal Gov.], they can make use of the other as the instrument of redress.” – Hamilton, Federalist No. 28 What are examples of Federalism in the U.S. Constitution?

11 Unitary System Centralized Government
All power held by one central authority Local government granted power by it

12 Confederal System Alliance of Independent States Create central Gov.
Power limited typically to defense and foreign commerce

13 Forms of Government Basic Forms:
Who governs and who participates in Gov.? There are many different types of governments deriving from different values emphasized by a state. Governments may be more civil, economic, religious, or a combination in nature. Basic Forms: Autocracy (autocrat, monarch, despot, tyrant, dictator) Oligarchy (aristocratic) Democracy (democratic)

14 Democracy v. Republic “The two great points of difference between a democracy and a republic are: first, the delegation of the government, in the latter, to a small number of citizens elected by the rest; secondly, the greater number of citizens, and greater sphere of country, over which the latter may be extended” (Madison Fed. 10). Democracy: “Rule of Many” (direct) Republic: Representative democracy (indirect) A republic has a professional network of politicians. Democratic republic: a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them (Popular Sovereignty).

15 Economic Forms of Gov. Communism - a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian - party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society). Examples: China, Cuba

16 Economic Forms of Gov. Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor. Capitalism - market economy with little to no government control. The U.S. economy is mixed with some regulation but is mostly based on Free-Enterprise.

17 Religious Forms of Gov. Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority. Examples: Iran (Theocratic Republic) Afghanistan (Islamic Republic)

18 Other Significant Forms
Constitutional: a government by or operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of that government (limited government). Parliamentary: Chief executive (Prime Minister) is chosen by and is a member of the legislature (parliament) . Prime Minister’s Questions Presidential: Executive branch exists separately from the legislature.

19 Summarizing Questions
Describe 3 different forms of government. What is the purpose of government?

20 U.S. Constitution Preamble
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

21 The Purposes and Effects of Government
Purposes Positive Effects Maintain social order Gov’t makes & enforces laws allowing people to live in an orderly, civilized manner Must pay taxes, court system Provide public services Promote the general welfare ** do things than no one else will do – inspect food, provide sewers, clean water Provide for national security & a common defense Protect from attack by other states ** treaties, trade agreements Providing for and controlling the economic system Pass laws to control economic conditions, distribute public services, control inflation & trade, natural resource development

22 Task Using the definitions of different systems and forms of government. Define American government in one paragraph. Then define U.S. Government in one sentence.

23 U.S. Governmnet “Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition” (CIA definition).

24 Resources

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