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Non-Western Studies with Mr. Tumino

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1 Non-Western Studies with Mr. Tumino
Introduction to Political Systems

2 A definition… A political system is a complete set of institutions (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions.

3 What, then, is government?
A government has the authority and power to control, direct, and rule over the actions and affairs of its people.

4 Introductory Information
Today’s world is comprised of nearly two hundred independent countries, defined by territory, population, and sovereignty (the right to rule, freedom from outside control) These elements are brought together under a government that makes and enforces policies and laws.

5 Levels of Government - Unitary
Unitary system gives all key powers to the national or central government. The central government creates provincial, state or other local governments and gives them limited sovereignty. Examples: France, The United Kingdom

6 Levels of Government - Federal
A federal system divides the powers of government between the national level and state or provincial levels. Each level has sovereignty in some areas. Example: The United States

7 Levels of Gov’t. - Confederation
A confederation is a loose union of independent states or territories. Example: Switzerland

8 Types of Governments Monarchies Democracies Autocracies Oligarchies
Absolute, Constitutional Democracies Parliamentary, Presidential Autocracies Dictatorships, Totalitarianism Oligarchies Theocracies

9 Absolute Monarchies Absolute monarchy is a form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government; his power not being limited by a constitution or by the law. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its peoples. In an absolute monarchy, the transmission of power is twofold: hereditary and marital. Examples: Bahrain, Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland.

10 Constitutional Monarchies
Constitutional {or limited} monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, unwritten or blended constitution. Examples: Belize, Bhutan, Bahrain, Cambodia, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, , Morocco, New Zealand, Thailand

11 Parliamentary Democracy
A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch get their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are accountable to that body. The executive and legislative branches are intertwined.

12 Map Key for Parliamentary Gov’ts.
RED-Constitutional monarchies in which authority is vested in a parliament. ORANGE-Parliamentary republics where parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. AQUA-Parliamentary republics where the role of the head of government and head of state are combined.

13 Parliamentary Governments

14 Presidential Democracy
A presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the name) separately from the legislature, to which he is not responsible.

15 Map Key for Presidential Gov’ts.
Presidential republics with a full presidential system are denoted in blue. Countries with a semi-presidential system are denoted in yellow. Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency chosen by the parliament are denoted in light green.

16 Presidential Governments

17 Representative vs. Direct Democracy
Both parliamentary and presidential democracies are examples of representative democracies in that the citizens elect others to represent them in the day to day operations of government. By contrast, in a direct or pure democracy, people collectively make decisions for themselves, rather than having their political affairs decided by representatives.

18 Autocracy and Dictators
An autocracy is a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power. A dictatorship is defined as an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by an individual, the dictator.

19 Totalitarianism Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

20 Totalitarianism…continued
Autocracy and totalitarianism are related concepts. Totalitarianism extends to regulating every aspect of public and private life. It does not necessarily imply a single ruler, but extends to include absolute rule by any faction or class of elites who recognize no limit to their authority.

21 Oligarchies Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, corporate, or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who pass their influence from one generation to the next.

22 Theocracies Theocracy is a form of government in which a state is understood as governed by immediate divine guidance provided to ruling clergy or other ruling officials. From the perspective of the theocratic government, "God himself is recognized as the head" of the state, hence the term theocracy. Example: Iran

23 Theocracies…continued
The state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy. Theocracy should be distinguished from other, secular, forms of government that have a state religion, or are merely influenced by theological or moral concepts, and monarchies held "By the Grace of God".

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