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Mr. Richter. Government and the State   Understand how public policy affects our lives  Identify the three main forms of governmental power  Explain.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Richter. Government and the State   Understand how public policy affects our lives  Identify the three main forms of governmental power  Explain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Richter

2 Government and the State

3   Understand how public policy affects our lives  Identify the three main forms of governmental power  Explain the difference between democracy and a dictatorship Objectives

4   Government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public polices  A public policy is what the government decides to do  Examples? What is government?

5   Legislative power  Power to make laws and frame public policies  Executive power  Power to execute, enforce and administer the law  Judicial power  Power to interpret the law and settle disputes Three types of governmental power

6   Document that outlines the powers of the government is often called a constitution  Different types of constitutions? The Constitution

7   Dictatorship  Ultimate responsibility of the government rests on one person or a small group of people  Those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people Types of Government

8   Democracy  Supreme authority rests with the people Types of Government

9   Politics  The process of distributing power and resources  Government  The institution where those decisions are made Politics ≠ Government

10   A body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority  Must have…  Population  Territory  Sovereignty  Government The State

11   Force Theory  One person or a small group forced the rest of the population to submit to their rule  Evolutionary Theory  A family was the center of government and over time the related families became “clans” Origins of the State

12   Divine Right Theory  God created the state and gave those who were ruling a “Divine Right” to rule  Social Contract Theory  Humans first lived in a “State of Nature” where people could take whatever they wanted by force  Humans eventually countered this by agreeing with each other to establish rules of conduct or a “government” Origins of the State cont.

13   Form a more perfect union  Establish Justice  Insure domestic tranquility  Provide for the common defense  Promote the general welfare  Secure the blessings of liberty The Purpose of Government

14   Understand how public policy affects our lives  Identify the three main forms of governmental power  Explain the difference between democracy and a dictatorship Objectives

15

16 Forms of Government

17  Objectives  Identify ways that power can be distributed  Understand the characteristics of the different types of governments  Explain the systems of government and who can participate

18   Who can participate in the governing process  Geographic distribution of governmental power within the state  Relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government Three Classifications of Government

19   Democracy  Supreme authority rests with the people  Direct Democracy  Will of the people is directly translated into public policy  Town hall meetings  Indirect Democracy  Representative Democracy  People elect representatives to create public policy Who can participate

20   Dictatorship  Those who rule cannot be held accountable to the will of the people  Autocracy  Single person holds power  Oligarchy  Power to rule is held by a small group of people. Usually self-appointed Who can participate cont.

21   Unitary Government  All powers held by the government belong to a single central agency  Federal Government  Power of the government is divided between the central government and several local governments  Division of Powers  Is stated by a higher authority that is above the central and local governments  Ex. US Constitution Geographic Distribution of Power

22   Confederate Government  Alliance of independent states(countries)  Their power is very limited and is decided by the states Geographic Distribution of Power cont.

23   Executive and Legislative branches of government are separate from one another and are elected separately  The United States invented this form of government structure Presidential Government

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25   The Prime Minister or Premier are actual members of the legislative branch or Parliament  Prime Minister is selected as the leader of the majority party in Parliament  There are no set terms for the Prime Minister and may be removed by a “vote of no confidence” Parliamentary Government

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27  Objectives  Identify ways that power can be distributed  Understand the characteristics of the different types of governments  Explain the systems of government and who can participate

28   What form of government do you think works best?  In essay form, half page hand written. Assignment

29 Basic Concepts of Democracy

30   Understand the foundations of democracy  Explain the free market system  Identify the importance of compromise Objectives

31  Foundations of Democracy  Worth of the Individual  Each person in a democracy has worth  Democracies serve the interests of the many  Equality of all persons  Equality of opportunity  Equality of the law  Majority Rule, Minority Rights  The majority of people will be right more often than wrong  Necessity of Compromise  Must find a position acceptable to the largest number

32   Does not insist on COMPLETE freedom of an individual  “The right to swing my fist ends where the other man’s nose begins” Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes  “The rights of every man are diminished when the rights of one man are threatened.” John Fitzgerald Kennedy Individual Freedom

33   Started from specialization  A person or group makes similar items to sell rather than many items to use  Four factors of Free Enterprise  Private ownership  Individual initiative  Profit  Competition Free Enterprise System

34   Law of supply and demand  Drives the economy  Mixed economy  Free market mixed with governmental involvement in regulation  How does the government regulate our economy? Free Enterprise cont.

35   Section 1.3 Assessment numbers 1-6 Homework

36   Understand the foundations of democracy  Explain the free market system  Identify the importance of compromise Objectives

37 Our Political Beginnings

38   Identify the three basic concepts that influenced government in the English Colonies  Understand the significance of the Magna Carta  Describe the three types of colonies that the English established in North America Objectives

39   Early English settlers established local governments that could help people on a more individual basis  Counties  Townships  Sheriff  Grand Jury Ordered Government

40   Government is not all- powerful and cannot take away certain rights from the individual  This idea had been a part of English life since the 1200s so naturally it was brought over to the Americas Limited Government

41   Meaning “Great Charter” forced the nobility of England to submit to the laws of the people  This document signed by the Barons or landowners of England protected the people against absolute power of the king The Magna Carta

42   Government that serves the will of the people  Idea that people should have a voice of what the government should do and not do Representative Government

43   The Petition of Right and the English Bill of Rights were important documents that further limited the powers of the monarchy Other Noteworthy Documents

44   British Parliament began to grow in influence after the Magna Carta  In 1628 when King Charles I asked for more taxes, Parliament refused and signed the Petition of Right  This document prevented the king from…  Unlawful imprisonment  Imposing martial law in times of peace  Requiring homeowners to house soldiers against their will Petition of Right

45   1688 British Parliament offered the crown to William and Mary of Orange  William and Mary were required to sign the new English Bill of Rights  This document  Prohibited a standing army in peacetime  Outlined the rights to a fair trial  Removed cruel and unusual punishment English Bill of Rights

46   Royal Colonies  Subject to direct control of the Crown  Proprietary Colonies  The King grants an area of land to a person who has complete rule over the area  Charter Colonies  The King grants a charter, or a written grant of authority, to a group of people  These were made for religious purposes English Colonies in America

47   Unicameral  Legislature is only one house  Bicameral  Legislature has two houses Types of Legislature

48   Identify the three basic concepts that influenced government in the English Colonies  Understand the significance of the Magna Carta  Describe the three types of colonies that the English established in North America Objectives

49 The Coming of Independence

50   Explain some of Britain’s colonial policies  Compare the outcomes of the First and Second Continental Congress  Identify the ideas of the Declaration of Independence Objectives

51   The King had a majority of control of the colonies  Parliament did not get involved at first  The colonies were largely self-reliant because of the large distance between them and England  By the mid-1700s the colonies relationship with England was mostly Federal in form British Policies for Colonies

52   Takes crown in 1760  Began taxing colonists to pay for British troops being stationed in America  Colonists objected  Claimed they should not be taxed without representation in parliament  “No Taxation without Representation” King George III

53   Albany Plan of Union  Idea made by Benjamin Franklin to form an annual congress of delegates from each colony to meet  The plan was turned down by the colonies as well as the Crown  Stamp Act Congress  Stamp Act passed in 1765 required the use of “stamped” legal documents, business agreements and on newspapers  Colonists began boycotting certain English Goods Early Attempts at Independence

54   1774 Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts to punish the colonists for their defiance  Delegates from every colony except Georgia met to discuss the repeal of the Intolerable Acts  They sent a Declaration of Rights to Parliament protesting colonial policies The First Continental Congress

55   The British government did not repeal the Intolerable acts and reacted to the Declaration of Rights with even more repression  SCC met in Philadelphia in May 1775  Each of the 13 colonies sent a representative  A continental army was created and George Washington was appointed commander  The SCC became our first national government Second Continental Congress

56   A year after the Revolution began, a proposition was made to the SCC to declare complete independence from Britain  Congress named a committee of 5 to create the Declaration but it was dominated by one  Thomas Jefferson  July 4 th,1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed and the United States of America became a nation The Declaration of Independence

57   Each state was urged to write a constitution to “best conduce to the happiness and safety of their constituents”  Outlined the ideas of four main points  Popular Sovereignty  Limited Government  Civil Rights and Liberties  Separation of Powers State Constitutions

58   The government can only exist and function only with the consent of the governed  The people hold power and the people are sovereign Popular Sovereignty

59   The powers given to the government were given reluctantly and contained many regulations  People in power could not be in power for long terms.  Typically no more than 1 or 2 years  Most power rested in the Legislature Limited Government

60   Sovereign people had certain rights that the government must respect at all times  Many of the new state constitutions contained a “Bill of Rights”  Establishing untouchable rights for the people Civil Rights and Liberties

61   A “Checks and Balances” system was put in place  The governments were divided into three branches  Executive, legislative and judicial  Each branch had the power to restrain the actions of other branches Separation of Powers

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63   Explain some of Britain’s colonial policies  Compare the outcomes of the First and Second Continental Congress  Identify the ideas of the Declaration of Independence Objectives

64 The Critical Period

65   Explain the structure of government set up under the Articles of Confederation  Identify some of the weaknesses of the Articles  Describe the events to plan a new constitution Objectives

66   Explain the Articles of Confederation  Each state was an individual only to come together for common defense and security of their liberties.  What is ratification  Formal approval  Characteristics of Articles of Confederation  Government Structure  Unicameral congress, each state had one vote  Powers of Congress  Make war and peace, borrow money, settle disputes  State Obligations  Pledged to obey the Articles, provide funds and troops  Weaknesses  No power to tax, regulate trade between states The Articles of Confederation

67   What were the states doing that caused problems?  Making allies with foreign nations, taxing other states, printed their own money  What was Shay's rebellion?  Landowner attacked a federal arsenal because he was upset about taxes and debts The Critical Period

68   Representatives from what two states met at Mt. Vernon to propose a change to the Articles  Virginia and Maryland  Why was the Annapolis meeting unsuccessful?  Only 5 of the 13 representatives from the states attended  Where was the proposed meeting place of the next convention?  Philadelphia  What was that meeting later called?  Constitutional Convention Need for Stronger Government

69 Creating a Constitution

70   Identify some of the main participants of the Constitutional Convention  Compare and contrast the New Jersey plan and the Virginia Plan  Understand the idea behind the three-fifths compromise Objectives

71   12 of the 13 states sent delegates to Philadelphia  All but Rhode Island  Included 55 men that were chosen as delegates from their respective state Framers of the Constitution

72   George Washington was named president of the convention  Delegates were required to work in secret, so they couldn’t be influenced by outside sources  James Madison was the convention’s floor leader and had a hand in most of the document Birth of a Constitution

73   Called for a new government consisting of…  Three branches – Executive, Legislative and Judicial  Bicameral Legislature – House and Senate  Members are represented by population and monetary donations The Virginia Plan

74   Wanted to amend the Articles  Retained the “Congress of the Confederation”  Unicameral Legislature  Had the power to tax and regulate trade between the States  Members of congress would be represented equally for each state The New Jersey Plan

75   Large states expected to dominate  Small states were worried that they wouldn’t have any voice  Connecticut Compromise  Senate – members represented each state equally, 2 members from each state  House of Representatives – representatives based on population Need to Compromise

76   Three-fifths compromise  Question of slaves being a part of the population for southern states  Slaves were to be counted as three-fifths of a person  Commerce and Slave Trade compromise  Congress could not tax exported goods and could not act on slave trade for at least 20 years More Compromises

77   Identify some of the main participants of the Constitutional Convention  Compare and contrast the New Jersey plan and the Virginia Plan  Understand the idea behind the three-fifths compromise Objectives

78 The Six Basic Principles

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80   Identify the six basic principles of our constitution  Understand why each of the principles are important  Explain the importance of the court case Marbury vs. Madison Objectives

81   Written in 1787, ratified in 1789  The purpose of the constitution is in its Preamble  We the people…  Divided in seven numbered sections called Articles  Articles are followed by 27 amendments  Changes made to the document over the past 200 years The Law of the Land

82   Popular Sovereignty  People are the only source for any and all governmental power  Limited Government  Government is not all-powerful, can only do things that the people have given them power to do  Rule of law – government and its officers are never above the law Basic Principles

83   Separation of Powers  Power is divided between the Legislative, Executive and Judicial Branches  Checks and Balances  Each branch of government can be restrained by the other two  Ex. Presidential Veto  Rejecting an act of congress Basic Principles

84   Judicial Review  Courts decide whether governmental actions are aligned with the constitution  Power to declare an act Unconstitutional  Marbury vs. Madison  Court case that established the courts ability to deem something unconstitutional  Federalism  Division of power between the central government and several regional governments (states) Basic Principles

85   Identify the six basic principles of our constitution  Understand why each of the principles are important  Explain the importance of the court case Marbury vs. Madison Objectives

86   1. What is an anti-federalist  2. On what two states did the success or failure of ratification depend?  3. Where was the first US Capitol located? Reading Quiz

87 Formal Amendment

88   Identify the four different ways to formally amend the Constitution  Explain the limits of the formal amendment process  Understand the history of the 27 amendments to the Constitution Objectives

89   Been a document that has lasted over 200 years  Can be changed in two ways, Formally and Informally Has the Constitution changed?

90   Changing the Constitution itself  There has been 27 formal amendments  Four different methods of formally amending the Constitution Formal Amendment

91  Formal Amendment Cont.

92   There has been 10,000 resolutions sent to Congress to amend the Constitution  33 has been sent to the States for ratification  27 have passed Formal Amendment Cont.

93   First ten amendments to the Constitution  Set up basic freedoms and liberties for the American public  Were added within three years of the ratification of the Constitution Bill of Rights

94  27 Amendments

95   Identify the four different ways to formally amend the Constitution  Explain the limits of the formal amendment process  Understand the history of the 27 amendments to the Constitution Objectives

96 Informal Amendment

97   Identify how basic legislation has changed the Constitution over time  Explain how the executive and judicial branches can amend the constitution  Understand the role of party practices and custom in shaping the Federal government Objectives

98   Changes made to the Constitution that has not involved changes to its written words  How the?  Basic Legislation  Executive Action  Court Decisions  Party Practices  Custom Informal Amendment

99   The constitution is the framework of our laws and practices  Congress builds on what the constitution says Basic Legislation

100   Actions of the president that are not granted specifically in the Constitution  Declaring War  Executive Agreement  Pact made by the President directly with a head of foreign state  Treaty  Formal agreement that must be passed through Congress Executive Action

101   The court system are continually making decisions that informally change the constitution  Woodrow Wilson said about the Supreme Court, “ a constitutional convention in continuous session.” Court Decisions

102   George Washington warned against political parties  But they have been in existence since the early 1800s  Nominating candidates  Electoral College  Has heavy influences by political parties Party Practices

103   Over the course of 200 years, many different customs or traditions has shaped our government  Cabinet  Heads of 14 different divisions make up the presidential cabinet  “No third term”  Presidential custom, broken by FDR Custom

104   Identify how basic legislation has changed the Constitution over time  Explain how the executive and judicial branches can amend the constitution  Understand the role of party practices and custom in shaping the Federal government Objectives

105 Federalism: The Division of Power

106   Explain federalism and why the Framers of the constitution chose this system of government  Identify the different powers of the National and State governments  Understand that the National Government holds exclusive powers but also hold concurrent powers within the states Objectives

107   Governmental power poses a threat to individual liberty  Exercise of governmental power must be restrained  Dividing governmental power prevents its abuse Why Federalism?

108   Federalism divides power between a central government and regional governments  Known as Division of Powers  Federalism allows for local action for local concerns  National action on national concerns Federalism by Definition

109   The national government has delegated powers  Powers given to them from the constitution  There are three distinct types of delegated powers  Expressed  Implied  Inherent Powers of National Government

110   Constitution spells out the powers given to the National Government  Sometimes called “Enumerated Powers”  Powers include  Collect taxes  Declare war  Fix standards of weights and measures Expressed Powers

111   Implied - Powers not expressly stated in the Constitution  They are “Implied”  Congress is given “Necessary and Proper power to make laws” Implied Powers

112   Powers possessed by a National Government because it is a sovereign state in the world community  Examples  Regulating immigration  Deport aliens  Acquire territory Inherent Powers

113   In the Constitution it says that the National Government cannot take freedoms granted in the Bill of Rights  Powers not written in the Constitution Powers Denied to the National Government

114   10 th amendment gives states “Reserved” powers  Powers not granted to the National Government  States have the power to create laws or regulations that are not already made in the National Government  States are denied powers that the National Government already possess  Making treaties, coining money etc The States

115   Concurrent powers  Powers shared between the State and National Government  Crime & punishment, taxes, etc.  Supremacy Clause  US Constitution over all, acts of Congress next  US Supreme Court power over states Concurrent and Supremacy Clause

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117   Explain federalism and why the Framers of the constitution chose this system of government  Identify the different powers of the National and State governments  Understand that the National Government holds exclusive powers but also hold concurrent powers within the states Objectives

118 National Government and the 50 States

119   Identify the obligations the Constitution places on the nation for the benefit of the states  Explain the process for admitting new states  Understand the many areas of cooperative federalism Objectives

120   What does “republican form of government mean?”  Representative government  If a state is invaded by a foreign force, does the national government have to do anything?  Yes, under the constitution the National government must protect the states  What does it mean to respect the territorial integrity of each state  The national government must recognize and respect the legal existence and physical boundaries of each state The Nations Obligations

121   Who has the power to admit new states to the union  Congress  What dose the “enabling act” do?  Directs the people of the proposed state to draft a state constitution  What is an “act of admission”  An act creating a new state Admitting New States

122   Why are “grants-in-aid programs” important?  They help provide funding so state and local governments can operate  What is “revenue sharing”  Congress gave tax revenue to states and their local governments to use how they wanted  What are the three types of “grants-in-aid” that congress gives to?  Categorical grants, block grants, and project grants Cooperative Federalism

123   Identify the obligations the Constitution places on the nation for the benefit of the states  Explain the process for admitting new states  Understand the many areas of cooperative federalism Objectives

124 Interstate Relations

125   Explain why states make interstate compacts  Identify what extradition is and what is its purpose Objectives

126   Agreement between states and or foreign states  Must be allowed by congress  Examples  Conserving resources  Promote vehicle safety Interstate Compacts

127   A fugitive from justice who leaves the state of his crimes, must be returned to his/her original state  You cannot escape justice by leaving the state Extradition

128   No state can draw unreasonable distinctions between it sown residents and those in other states  Examples  Allow buying property in other states  Get married in other states  Hunt/fish  Go to college Privileges and Immunities

129   Explain why states make interstate compacts  Identify what extradition is and what is its purpose Objectives


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