2How did the Edo Era of Great Peace Begin? In the 16th century, Japan was divided into about 250 smaller regionsThe Emperor was the ruler of Japan.The capital (Government) located in KyotoDuring the Edo period, government moved to EdoEdo (not the restaurant) = Tokyo
4The Daimyo was the commander of each region Constantly at war with each other for more land and powerThe Shogun held the real power and authority, he was the leader of the military governmentThree Shogun are given credit for unifying Japan.Oda NobunagaToyotomi HideyoshiTokugawa Ieyasu
6Oda Nobunaga ( )Reduced the influence of Buddhist control over Japanese politicsBuilt a series of castles to defend his landsIntroduced new administrative practices to pave the way towards a unified Japan
7Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) Continued centralizing governmentCharged landowner koku instead of money for tax. The wealthier paid more.Created a formal class structure that included samurai, farmers, artisans, merchants
8People had to chose between farming or warrior, not both Tried expanding his land by attacking both Korea and China. He lost.Supported painters and new types of drama
9Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) Established his government base in Edo Finalized the unification of JapanIsolationist – believed that Japan could advance on its own
10Why Did Japan Isolate Itself from Much of the World Foreign InfluencesJapan was trading with European merchants. (Portugal, Spain, England, Netherlands)Ieyasu did not want the Japanese to be exposed by western ideas.Saw the Europeans setting up coloniesWanted ensure the safety and sovereignty of the Japanese
11Homework: If you were Tokugawa Ieyasu, how would you ensure that Japan would remain isolated despite the influences of European traders & missionaries.SUGGESTIONSProsCons
13The Spread of Christianity Most European ships had Catholic missionaries on themSt. Francis Xavier converted 150,000Hideyoshi ordered the missionaries to leave, and later 26 Franciscans were executedAfter Isyasu’s death the Bakufu worried about the people following otherspiritual views.Introduced a bunch of Edicts
14Closed Country Edict of 1635 The National Seclusion Policy developed over six years from 1633 to It set out controls on the interaction between Japanese and foreigners.The National Seclusion Policy:Closed Country Edict of 1635Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to travel to foreign countriesNo Japanese is permitted to go abroad. Anyone who attempts to do so must be executed.No single trading city shall be permitted to purchase all the merchandise brought by foreign ships.If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death.Portuguese ships are banned from Japanese ports. Any ship disobeying this order will be destroyed and its crew and passengers executed.If any southern barbarians (Westerners) teach Christianity or commit crimes, they may be put into prison.
15Basic Political Terms: Edo:The old name for Tokyo. Edo literally means the mouth of bay.Daimyo:The lord of a local region or the head samurai of a local governmentShogun:The head of a central military government.Bakufu:The centralized military governmentHan:A local government in each domain (province)
16How Did the Political System During the Edo Period Reflect their Worldview? Hierarchical Political SystemEvery domain (province) was controlled by a DaimyoHe controlled his lands how he wanted, but had to swear allegiance to the ShogunEach of the Daimyo ruled over the local government, or HanEven the shogun was in control of one
17(advisors serving shogun) Political StructureSamurai OrderRuler of JapanRuled byHatamoto Gokenin(advisors serving shogun)Ruled byRetainers(serving han)
18The daimyo could never move out of their class. How did the Bakufu Control the Daimyo?The daimyo were divided into three classes:those most trusted and loyalnobles of the Tokugawa familythose who had little standing because they may have opposed the shogun before he gained power.The daimyo could never move out of their class.The Bakufu wanted to ensure that no daimyo could gain enough power and wealth to overtake the shogun or gain power over the members of the Bakufu.
19Every Diamyo must adhere to these rules: No unnecessary contact between DaimyosReport any suspicious activities, don’t let traitors to the Shogun into their domainThere can only be one castle per domainSupply detailed maps of landholding to BakufuDaimyo must support public building project
20Daimyo spent every second year in Edo All commoners must register at Buddhist templesMarriages of daimyo must get permission from BakufuTravel and shipbuilding are restricted
21The Bakufu controlled the Diamyo: Had the power to relocate themHad the power to abolish themCreated laws that did not allow for the daimyo to create alliances with each otherCreated laws that made it impossible to gain enough money to become a threat
22Hierarchical Social Class System Edo Japan’s social structure during isolation was a hierarchical system. (like the feudal system – could not move out of the class they were born into)6 Levels of the class system:ShogunSamuraiFarmersArtisansMerchantsOutcasts (Eta)Non-Humans (Hinin)
23Jigsaw Activity: Social Structure Each group will be assigned a social class /levelGroup must make notes and present notes to class.Info to cover:What was their jobWhat was there place in the social systemHow did things change during isolation?In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.Refer to p
24Social Structure: Samurai What was their jobWhat was there place in the social systemHow did things change during isolation?In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
25Social Structure: Farmers What was their jobWhat was there place in the social systemHow did things change during isolation?In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
26Social Structure: Artisans What was their jobWhat was there place in the social systemHow did things change during isolation?In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
27Social Structure: Merchants What was their jobWhat was there place in the social systemHow did things change during isolation?In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
28Social Structure: Outcasts What was their jobWhat was there place in the social systemHow did things change during isolation?In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
29Social Structure: Non-humans What was their jobWhat was there place in the social systemHow did things change during isolation?In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
30How did Communities Change During Isolation? The shogun created, and maintained five major roadways for the diamyo’s annual pilgrimages to EdoThe regular movement of people had an effect on the economies of the domains of the nationEconomies of the rural and urban areas became intertwined.As the diamyo and their entourages traveled, the need for services on the route grewAccommodationsFoodEtc.
31With all the visitors going to Edo, artisans and merchants started to settle in areas on the main roadways.This provided the travelers with goods and servicesCities could not be self-sufficient, so rural and urban areas became intertwined.Eventually, castle towns grew because of the influx of artisans and merchantsEdo, Kyoto, Osaka grew to over 1,000,000The change to an urban society helped the later transitions Japanese society would undergo in the Meiji period.
32Japan’s Three Metropolises EdoPresent day Tokyo and was the largest city and the center of governmentIeyasu chose this site for the easy to defend port and waterways.Sometimes they had 250 daimyo and theirfamilies in the cityTo sustain the the city’s growth and economymerchant were encouraged to develop large businesses.By the 18th century, the city grew to overpeople, making it oneof the largest cities in the world
33KyotoWas the capital before EdoThe city was chosen because it had easy river access to the sea.City was also surrounded by mountains which provided good defenseKnown for beautiful luxuries like silk brocades, fine lacquer, and metal workCenter of publishing and knownfor its woodblock printing
34OsakaAround a protected harbourIt had hundreds of warehouses along the waterfront and good were moved by river access to the inland cities (Kyoto)Famous castle (Buddhist temple) and the 150 bridgesKnown as the “Kitchen of Japan”Good farmlandSurplus rice was sent to sell
35How Did The Popular Culture Of Japan Change During Isolation? Just as the arts flourished in the city-states of the Renaissance, the popular culture of Japan began to changeCities grew and the merchant class became more wealthyThe daimyo became patrons of the arts and supported artists, sculptors, painters etc.
36Kabuki TheatreFeatured lively action and was a mirror of Japanese lifeDepicted moral dilemmasGreat kabuki actors were so popular, they were treated like the movie stars of todayBanraku TheaterBanraku was a name for a puppet theater which was for adultsGeishasWomen trained in dancing, singing and they were expected to demonstrate all the correct forms of etiquetteWoodlock ImagesWere prints of original paintings which often depicted scenes of nature and the lives of commoners in thier daily activitiesBooks and LiteratureBy the mid-17th century, printing houses apeared in OsakaBasho Matsuo developed a new poetic form called Haiku
37How Did Foreign Influence Change Japan Despote Policies Of Isolation? Depsite it’s policies, Japan was not totally isolatedThe Chinese and the Koreans were permitted limited access to the country to meet with Japanese traders ad officialsChinese influence on Japanese learning increased during isolation as their goods and ideas were actually allowed into JapanThe Dutch eventually had an impact on Japan in the area of medicineIn the 1720’s the shogun himself became interested in Western books and ideas and as a result relaxed restrictions on importing books
38What Factors Influenced Change in Meiji Japan? Chapter 5What Factors Influenced Change in Meiji Japan?
39Russian InfluenceThey started trading along the Pacific Coast and established the Russian-American Company.The czar gave the company permission to trade with the Ainu.Russia stopped trading when they became involved with wars in Europe.Japanese realized that the Bakufu were too concerned with internal affairs and should prepare for trouble that might come from the outside world.Japan’s ResponseCaptured a commander and pushed Russians off the northern Islands
40European InfluenceDutch East India Company had all their ships fly Dutch flags and hide any bibles and weapons.Japanese high level official believed they should start learning about the west and had books brought in.They learned about history, the sciences and institutions.Thought Europe was a superpower because they all dressed the same unlike Asian countries.Japan’s ResponseClosed the doors tighter, and asked for documentation from ships that would dock.
41Chinese InfluenceChina was forced to sign a treaty that gave control of their ports to Britain.Japan’s ResponseSince they saw China as a powerful nation, they realized the strength of the British Navy.Abandoned some edicts that might cause Western countries, like Britain, want to invade Japan if they don’t start negotiating.
42United States Influence Commodore Matthew Perry negotiated;Get supplies and coal from JapanTo protect sailors and American ships that might need helpTo enter into an official trade agreementTownsend Harris negotiatedOpened five ports for the AmericansAllowed Americans to live in Edo and OsakaSupplied Japan with ships, arms, and technicians
43United States Influence Con’t Japan’s ResponseIntellectuals in the larger domains found the treaties favorableOthers felt that they were unequal treatiesJapan was pressured to sign treaties with Russia, Britain, France and the Netherlands. (also considered unequal)Japan leaders felt they must compete with the West to meet foreign challenges and protect Japan’s Sovereignty
44Who/What was…The Ainu: Dutch East India Company Commodore Perry
45How did Japan respond to the crisis? Different Points of View: caused a lot of internal conflictOne group believed:Only a matter of time before Japan was forced to trade with Western nationsJapan would not be able to remain isolatedJapan did not want to be colonized or over thrown by another countryJapan needed Western technologies to remain powerful and independent
46Another group believed: Japan should remain isolated and declare war on Western countriesAll foreigners should be killed“barbarians” would expose the common Japanese (peasants, merchants, artisans) to a different way of life, thus, undermining their social structure/class system
47Civil Unrest Cause Bad weather caused poor crops Japanese began questioning taxes they were forced to payJapanese blamed the government for the unrest because they could not overcome their difficultiesCitizens were asking questions about all the changes government was makingSamurai began to support the emperor/stronger loyalty to himSamurai were upset with the Harris TreatyEffectFarmers and peasants were starvingSupport for the Bakafu weakened
48Leaders of the above domains: Samurai were especially strong in Choshu, Satsuma, Tosa, and Saga – these domains never really supported the shogun.Leaders of the above domains:secretly traveled to Englanddid not actually fear the presence of the foreignersused the issue of foreign influence to create dislike for the Bakufu
49Critiques of the shogun: wanted to create a new government headed by the emperorincreased military armamentspurchased weapons and ships from the Westwomen broke tradition and began fighting against shogun troops
50In 1867…Samurai from Tosa convinced the shogun to resign and take a leading role in the new governmentmilitary forces from Satsuma and Choshu intervenedMeiji was the new emperorTokugawa shogun surrendered their ancestral lands to the MeijiShogun responded with military attackMilitary forces were defeated in 1869Emperor moved to Edo and renamed the capital Tokyo
51The Modernization of Japan Meiji period: 1868 to 1912Led the restoration of imperial rule
53How did the political system change? Political leaders used the creation story to their advantage (pg 180)They declared the emperor sacred and inviolableTried to appeal to the Japanese traditionalistsTried to build loyalty to governmentUsed the young emperor as a symbol of unity
54The Charter OathWanted the samurai to know that they are this new government was not the same as the old BakufuFuture policies would be based on a consensusMade many draftsFinal form satisfied all the points of views expressed by all who worked on itShowed change in all three elements of worldview: political and economic systems, social systems and cultureUnity of Rites and RulesPg 182
55How did Japan reshape its worldview and begin to modernize? New LeadershipEmperor – official head of the government, but did not directly ruleAn oligarchy was formedPromoted economic growth and industrializationSamurai were the leaders – average age of 30 – military skills, studied in the west
56Two goals:to modernize Japan and make the economy grow(2) to renegotiate the unequal treatiesWanted to be competitive in the modern world, yet continue to be JapaneseThe samurai looked to Europe and North America for models or a modern systemJapan’s worldview changed drastically! Foreigner use to be despised, but now they were welcomed.
57The Iwakura Mission Iwakura Tomomi led the mission 50 officials and 50 students sent on a 22-month world trip of 12 countriesPurpose: find the best ideas and bring them back to JapanIwakura Tomomi led the mission
58Ideas that were gathered from the West Ways to modernize JapanTo develop a nation competitive in the modern worldEducationA form of participatory governmentCapitalismReligious freedomMaintain national sovereignty
60How Did Rapid Change During the Meiji Period Affect Japan’s Worldview? Chapter 6How Did Rapid Change During the Meiji Period Affect Japan’s Worldview?
61At the beginning of the Meiji Period, there were two things that Japan wanted to become. A military PowerEconomically Self-sufficient
62How to Implement the Change? Some of the Western ideologies that the Japanese borrowed and adapted wereAspects of democracy, such as elected representativesPublic education, to help adjust to an industrialized nationEmbraced new Technologies, like steam powered machineryNo other country has adapted so quickly or successfully
63How Did Modernizing the Japanese Political System Reflect a New Worldview? The Japanese believed in implementing an Oligarchy government, and slowly move towards a Constitutional government.For this new government to work, the emperor needed to unify the countryDomains were replayed by prefecture systemUsed himself as a symbol to develop strong nationalistic feelings
64Two main groups developed after looking at the different governments in the west the Japanese finally agreed on a strong cabinet and limited powers of parliament, called a Dajoken.This new government put an end to the feudal class system and left the Japanese with one obligation – be loyal to the emperor and the state.LiberalConservativeSupported French and American ideas of Human RightsSupported the German model of centralized control
65The new government wanted to make a constitution because Most strong European countries had constitutionsWestern countries would regard Japan as a stronger nation if it had western-style constitutionA constitution would unify JapanAfter the constitution was written, (pg 197), there were political debates, some lead to violent revolts, and a call for a representative government.
66How Did Japan Change Its Economic System? IndustrializationNew factories like munitions, gunpowder, silk and textile, glass, and chemical plantsThe government funded and owned businesses and handed them over to private owners within 10 yearsThey also increased import tariffs to make domestic products cheaperPg 202
67CapitalismTo help the Japanese government, the Minister of Finance did three thingsSaw the need to renegotiate unequal treaties – adapted economic polices that would protect JapanEncourage more private businessImposed new taxes and lowered the value of printed moneyThis caused the national income to increase
68Five of the ways in which Japan industrialized. New railroadsDeep water harborsTelephone systemsNew technology and industriesMoney was lent to start new businesses
69How Did Japan Change Its Military System to Meet Political Needs? In Western countries, the military was part of the political and economical systems. Japan too wanted this because;They wanted obedient and disciplined soldiersJapan did not want to be seen as a weak military nation in comparison to Western powersWanted to become a colonial powerWanted to ensure they could meet their military goals
70Japan modeledthe German armyand the British Navy
71How Did Japan’s New Worldview Change Its Social System? No feudal systemIndividuals could achieve better status, change occupations, move around the country, and obtain an education.The Education system changedEdo PeriodMeiji PeriodPeople learned practical knowledgeStandardized curriculumSchools mainly for samurai childrenElementary schools for everyone
72The Worldview of the Japanese changed and the national military broke down the classes and regional differencesPeasants received educational training
73Peasants returned home and shared what they had learned with their families and they had developed a sense of loyalty to the emperor (nationalism)Before the peasants lefthome they were illiteratewhen they returned theycould read
74Three main goals were achieved by the military. Changed the influence and power it had with other nationsHelped to keep the nation unitedProtected itsindependence
75How did Japan's Culture Change? ReligionOligarchy wanted to make Shinto the national religion.But the schools were still teaching Confucianism, and the military was still teaching bushido.Eventually allowed freedom of religion
76AttitudesPushed for individual success‘Civilization and Enlightenment’ (bunmei kaika)In the old ways people worked in harmony with each other.‘For the sake of the country’ (kuni no tame)After failing to renegotiate treaties, writers started pushing the importance of retaining Japanese traditional values
77Citizenship and Participation Peasants no longer were just exposed to the day to day concerns of lifeThey started to write letters and form lobby groups to let the government know if they were unhappy
78How Did Japan’s Changes in the Edo period differ from those in the Meiji period? See chart on page 218 – 219 of your text book.