Presentation on theme: "Japan. How did the Edo Era of Great Peace Begin? In the 16 th century, Japan was divided into about 250 smaller regions EmperorThe Emperor was the ruler."— Presentation transcript:
How did the Edo Era of Great Peace Begin? In the 16 th century, Japan was divided into about 250 smaller regions EmperorThe Emperor was the ruler of Japan. The capital (Government) located in Kyoto During the Edo period, government moved to Edo Edo (not the restaurant) = Tokyo
DaimyoThe Daimyo was the commander of each region Constantly at war with each other for more land and power ShogunThe Shogun held the real power and authority, he was the leader of the military government Three Shogun are given credit for unifying Japan. –Oda Nobunaga –Toyotomi Hideyoshi –Tokugawa Ieyasu
Oda Nobunaga ( ) Reduced the influence of Buddhist control over Japanese politics Built a series of castles to defend his lands Introduced new administrative practices to pave the way towards a unified Japan
Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( ) Continued centralizing government kokuCharged landowner koku instead of money for tax. The wealthier paid more. Created a formal class structure that included samurai, farmers, artisans, merchants
People had to chose between farming or warrior, not both Tried expanding his land by attacking both Korea and China. He lost. Supported painters and new types of drama
Tokugawa Ieyasu ( ) Established his government base in Edo Finalized the unification of Japan Isolationist – believed that Japan could advance on its own
Why Did Japan Isolate Itself from Much of the World Foreign Influences Japan was trading with European merchants. (Portugal, Spain, England, Netherlands) Ieyasu did not want the Japanese to be exposed by western ideas. Saw the Europeans setting up colonies Wanted ensure the safety and sovereignty of the Japanese
Homework: If you were Tokugawa Ieyasu, how would you ensure that Japan would remain isolated despite the influences of European traders & missionaries. SUGGESTIONSProsCons
Japan in the Edo Period
The Spread of Christianity Most European ships had Catholic missionaries on them St. Francis Xavier converted 150,000 Hideyoshi ordered the missionaries to leave, and later 26 Franciscans were executed After Isyasu’s death the Bakufu worried about the people following otherspiritual views. Introduced a bunch of Edicts
The National Seclusion Policy: The National Seclusion Policy developed over six years from 1633 to It set out controls on the interaction between Japanese and foreigners. Closed Country Edict of 1635 Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to travel to foreign countries No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. Anyone who attempts to do so must be executed. If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death. If any southern barbarians (Westerners) teach Christianity or commit crimes, they may be put into prison. No single trading city shall be permitted to purchase all the merchandise brought by foreign ships. Portuguese ships are banned from Japanese ports. Any ship disobeying this order will be destroyed and its crew and passengers executed.
Basic Political Terms:Edo: The old name for Tokyo. Edo literally means the mouth of bay. Daimyo: The lord of a local region or the head samurai of a local government Shogun: The head of a central military government. Bakufu: The centralized military government Han: A local government in each domain (province)
How Did the Political System During the Edo Period Reflect their Worldview? Hierarchical Political System Every domain (province) was controlled by a Daimyo He controlled his lands how he wanted, but had to swear allegiance to the Shogun Each of the Daimyo ruled over the local government, or Han Even the shogun was in control of one
Political Structure Samurai Order Ruled by Ruler of Japan
How did the Bakufu Control the Daimyo? The daimyo were divided into three classes: those most trusted and loyal nobles of the Tokugawa family those who had little standing because they may have opposed the shogun before he gained power. The daimyo could never move out of their class. The Bakufu wanted to ensure that no daimyo could gain enough power and wealth to overtake the shogun or gain power over the members of the Bakufu.
Every Diamyo must adhere to these rules: No unnecessary contact between Daimyos Report any suspicious activities, don’t let traitors to the Shogun into their domain There can only be one castle per domain Supply detailed maps of landholding to Bakufu Daimyo must support public building project
Daimyo spent every second year in Edo All commoners must register at Buddhist temples Marriages of daimyo must get permission from Bakufu Travel and shipbuilding are restricted
The Bakufu controlled the Diamyo: Had the power to relocate them Had the power to abolish them Created laws that did not allow for the daimyo to create alliances with each other Created laws that made it impossible to gain enough money to become a threat
Hierarchical Social Class System (like the feudal system – could not move out of the class they were born into) Edo Japan’s social structure during isolation was a hierarchical system. (like the feudal system – could not move out of the class they were born into) 6 Levels of the class system: Shogun Samurai Farmers Artisans Merchants Outcasts (Eta) Non-Humans (Hinin)
Jigsaw Activity: Social Structure Each group will be assigned a social class /level Group must make notes and present notes to class. Info to cover: What was their job What was there place in the social system How did things change during isolation? In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same. Refer to p
Social Structure: Samurai What was their job What was there place in the social system How did things change during isolation? In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Farmers What was their job What was there place in the social system How did things change during isolation? In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Artisans What was their job What was there place in the social system How did things change during isolation? In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Merchants What was their job What was there place in the social system How did things change during isolation? In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Outcasts What was their job What was there place in the social system How did things change during isolation? In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
Social Structure: Non-humans What was their job What was there place in the social system How did things change during isolation? In what ways were their lives better, worse, the same.
How did Communities Change During Isolation? The shogun created, and maintained five major roadways for the diamyo’s annual pilgrimages to Edo The regular movement of people had an effect on the economies of the domains of the nation Economies of the rural and urban areas became intertwined. As the diamyo and their entourages traveled, the need for services on the route grew Accommodations Food Etc.
With all the visitors going to Edo, artisans and merchants started to settle in areas on the main roadways. This provided the travelers with goods and services Cities could not be self-sufficient, so rural and urban areas became intertwined. Eventually, castle towns grew because of the influx of artisans and merchants Edo, Kyoto, Osaka grew to over 1,000,000 The change to an urban society helped the later transitions Japanese society would undergo in the Meiji period.
Japan’s Three Metropolises Edo Present day Tokyo and was the largest city and the center of government Ieyasu chose this site for the easy to defend port and waterways. Sometimes they had 250 daimyo and their families in the city To sustain the the city’s growth and economy merchant were encouraged to develop large businesses. By the 18th century, the city grew to over people, making it one of the largest cities in the world
Kyoto Was the capital before Edo The city was chosen because it had easy river access to the sea. City was also surrounded by mountains which provided good defense Known for beautiful luxuries like silk brocades, fine lacquer, and metal work Center of publishing and known for its woodblock printing
Osaka Around a protected harbour It had hundreds of warehouses along the waterfront and good were moved by river access to the inland cities (Kyoto) Famous castle (Buddhist temple) and the 150 bridges Known as the “Kitchen of Japan” Good farmland Surplus rice was sent to sell
How Did The Popular Culture Of Japan Change During Isolation? Just as the arts flourished in the city-states of the Renaissance, the popular culture of Japan began to change Cities grew and the merchant class became more wealthy The daimyo became patrons of the arts and supported artists, sculptors, painters etc.
Kabuki Theatre Featured lively action and was a mirror of Japanese life Depicted moral dilemmas Great kabuki actors were so popular, they were treated like the movie stars of today Banraku Theater Banraku was a name for a puppet theater which was for adultsGeishas Women trained in dancing, singing and they were expected to demonstrate all the correct forms of etiquette Woodlock Images Were prints of original paintings which often depicted scenes of nature and the lives of commoners in thier daily activities Books and Literature By the mid-17th century, printing houses apeared in Osaka Basho Matsuo developed a new poetic form called Haiku
How Did Foreign Influence Change Japan Despote Policies Of Isolation? Depsite it’s policies, Japan was not totally isolated The Chinese and the Koreans were permitted limited access to the country to meet with Japanese traders ad officials Chinese influence on Japanese learning increased during isolation as their goods and ideas were actually allowed into Japan The Dutch eventually had an impact on Japan in the area of medicine In the 1720’s the shogun himself became interested in Western books and ideas and as a result relaxed restrictions on importing books
Chapter 5 What Factors Influenced Change in Meiji Japan?
Russian Influence They started trading along the Pacific Coast and established the Russian-American Company. The czar gave the company permission to trade with the Ainu. Russia stopped trading when they became involved with wars in Europe. Japanese realized that the Bakufu were too concerned with internal affairs and should prepare for trouble that might come from the outside world. Japan’s Response Captured a commander and pushed Russians off the northern Islands
European Influence Dutch East India Company had all their ships fly Dutch flags and hide any bibles and weapons. Japanese high level official believed they should start learning about the west and had books brought in. They learned about history, the sciences and institutions. Thought Europe was a superpower because they all dressed the same unlike Asian countries. Japan’s Response Closed the doors tighter, and asked for documentation from ships that would dock.
Chinese Influence China was forced to sign a treaty that gave control of their ports to Britain. Japan’s Response Since they saw China as a powerful nation, they realized the strength of the British Navy. Abandoned some edicts that might cause Western countries, like Britain, want to invade Japan if they don’t start negotiating.
United States Influence Commodore Matthew Perry negotiated ; Get supplies and coal from Japan To protect sailors and American ships that might need help To enter into an official trade agreement Townsend Harris negotiated Opened five ports for the Americans Allowed Americans to live in Edo and Osaka Supplied Japan with ships, arms, and technicians
United States Influence Con’t Japan’s Response Intellectuals in the larger domains found the treaties favorable Others felt that they were unequal treaties Japan was pressured to sign treaties with Russia, Britain, France and the Netherlands. (also considered unequal) Japan leaders felt they must compete with the West to meet foreign challenges and protect Japan’s Sovereignty
Who/What was… The Ainu: Dutch East India Company Commodore Perry
How did Japan respond to the crisis? Only a matter of time before Japan was forced to trade with Western nations Japan would not be able to remain isolated Japan did not want to be colonized or over thrown by another country Japan needed Western technologies to remain powerful and independent Different Points of View: caused a lot of internal conflict One group believed:
Another group believed: Japan should remain isolated and declare war on Western countries All foreigners should be killed “barbarians” would expose the common Japanese (peasants, merchants, artisans) to a different way of life, thus, undermining their social structure/class system
Civil Unrest Cause Bad weather caused poor cropsBad weather caused poor crops Japanese began questioning taxes they were forced to payJapanese began questioning taxes they were forced to pay Japanese blamed the government for the unrest because they could not overcome their difficultiesJapanese blamed the government for the unrest because they could not overcome their difficulties Citizens were asking questions about all the changes government was makingCitizens were asking questions about all the changes government was making Samurai began to support the emperor/stronger loyalty to himSamurai began to support the emperor/stronger loyalty to him Samurai were upset with the Harris TreatySamurai were upset with the Harris TreatyEffect Farmers and peasants were starving Farmers and peasants were starving Support for the Bakafu weakened Support for the Bakafu weakened
Leaders of the above domains: secretly traveled to England did not actually fear the presence of the foreigners used the issue of foreign influence to create dislike for the Bakufu Samurai were especially strong in Choshu, Satsuma, Tosa, and Saga – these domains never really supported the shogun.
Critiques of the shogun: wanted to create a new government headed by the emperor increased military armaments purchased weapons and ships from the West purchased weapons and ships from the West women broke tradition and began fighting against shogun troops women broke tradition and began fighting against shogun troops
In 1867… Samurai from Tosa convinced the shogun to resign and take a leading role in the new government military forces from Satsuma and Choshu intervened Meiji was the new emperor Tokugawa shogun surrendered their ancestral lands to the Meiji Shogun responded with military attack Military forces were defeated in 1869 Emperor moved to Edo and renamed the capital Tokyo
The Modernization of Japan Meiji period: 1868 to 1912 Led the restoration of imperial rule
Origin of the Emperors of Japan
How did the political system change? Political leaders used the creation story to their advantage (pg 180) They declared the emperor sacred and inviolable Tried to appeal to the Japanese traditionalists Tried to build loyalty to government Used the young emperor as a symbol of unity
The Charter Oath Wanted the samurai to know that they are this new government was not the same as the old Bakufu Future policies would be based on a consensus Made many drafts Final form satisfied all the points of views expressed by all who worked on it Showed change in all three elements of worldview: political and economic systems, social systems and culture Unity of Rites and Rules Pg 182
How did Japan reshape its worldview and begin to modernize? New Leadership Emperor – official head of the government, but did not directly rule An oligarchy was formed Promoted economic growth and industrialization Samurai were the leaders – average age of 30 – military skills, studied in the west
Two goals: (1)to modernize Japan and make the economy grow (2) to renegotiate the unequal treaties Wanted to be competitive in the modern world, yet continue to be Japanese The samurai looked to Europe and North America for models or a modern system Japan’s worldview changed drastically! Foreigner use to be despised, but now they were welcomed.
The Iwakura Mission 50 officials and 50 students sent on a 22- month world trip of 12 countries Purpose: find the best ideas and bring them back to Japan Iwakura Tomomi led the mission
Ideas that were gathered from the West Ways to modernize Japan To develop a nation competitive in the modern world Education A form of participatory government Capitalism Religious freedom Maintain national sovereignty
Chapter 6 How Did Rapid Change During the Meiji Period Affect Japan’s Worldview?
At the beginning of the Meiji Period, there were two things that Japan wanted to become. A military Power Economically Self-sufficient
How to Implement the Change? Some of the Western ideologies that the Japanese borrowed and adapted were Aspects of democracy, such as elected representatives Public education, to help adjust to an industrialized nation Embraced new Technologies, like steam powered machinery No other country has adapted so quickly or successfully
How Did Modernizing the Japanese Political System Reflect a New Worldview? The Japanese believed in implementing an Oligarchy government, and slowly move towards a Constitutional government. For this new government to work, the emperor needed to unify the country Domains were replayed by prefecture system Used himself as a symbol to develop strong nationalistic feelings
Two main groups developed after looking at the different governments in the west the Japanese finally agreed on a strong cabinet and limited powers of parliament, called a Dajoken. This new government put an end to the feudal class system and left the Japanese with one obligation – be loyal to the emperor and the state. LiberalConservative Supported French and American ideas of Human Rights Supported the German model of centralized control
The new government wanted to make a constitution because Most strong European countries had constitutions Western countries would regard Japan as a stronger nation if it had western-style constitution A constitution would unify Japan After the constitution was written, (pg 197), there were political debates, some lead to violent revolts, and a call for a representative government.
How Did Japan Change Its Economic System? Industrialization New factories like munitions, gunpowder, silk and textile, glass, and chemical plants The government funded and owned businesses and handed them over to private owners within 10 years They also increased import tariffs to make domestic products cheaper Pg 202
Capitalism To help the Japanese government, the Minister of Finance did three things Saw the need to renegotiate unequal treaties – adapted economic polices that would protect Japan Encourage more private business Imposed new taxes and lowered the value of printed money This caused the national income to increase
Five of the ways in which Japan industrialized. New railroads Deep water harbors Telephone systems New technology and industries Money was lent to start new businesses
How Did Japan Change Its Military System to Meet Political Needs? In Western countries, the military was part of the political and economical systems. Japan too wanted this because; They wanted obedient and disciplined soldiers Japan did not want to be seen as a weak military nation in comparison to Western powers Wanted to become a colonial power Wanted to ensure they could meet their military goals
Japan modeled the German army and the British Navy
How Did Japan’s New Worldview Change Its Social System? No feudal system Individuals could achieve better status, change occupations, move around the country, and obtain an education. The Education system changed Edo PeriodMeiji Period People learned practical knowledge Standardized curriculum Schools mainly for samurai children Elementary schools for everyone
The Worldview of the Japanese changed and the national military broke down the classes and regional differences Peasants received educational training
Peasants returned home and shared what they had learned with their families and they had developed a sense of loyalty to the emperor (nationalism) Before the peasants left home they were illiterate when they returned they could read
Three main goals were achieved by the military. Changed the influence and power it had with other nations Helped to keep the nation united Protected its independence
How did Japan's Culture Change? Religion Oligarchy wanted to make Shinto the national religion. But the schools were still teaching Confucianism, and the military was still teaching bushido. Eventually allowed freedom of religion
Attitudes Pushed for individual success ‘Civilization and Enlightenment’ (bunmei kaika) In the old ways people worked in harmony with each other. ‘For the sake of the country’ (kuni no tame) After failing to renegotiate treaties, writers started pushing the importance of retaining Japanese traditional values
Citizenship and Participation Peasants no longer were just exposed to the day to day concerns of lifePeasants no longer were just exposed to the day to day concerns of life They started to write letters and form lobby groups to let the government know if they were unhappyThey started to write letters and form lobby groups to let the government know if they were unhappy
How Did Japan’s Changes in the Edo period differ from those in the Meiji period? See chart on page 218 – 219 of your text book.