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The American Nation Chapter 16 Slavery Divides the Nation, 1820–1861 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Nation Chapter 16 Slavery Divides the Nation, 1820–1861 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Nation Chapter 16 Slavery Divides the Nation, 1820–1861 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 The American Nation Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: Slavery in the Territories Section 2: The Compromise of 1850 Section 3: The Crisis Deepens Section 4: The Republican Party Emerges Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation, 1820–1861 Section 5: A Nation Divides

3 Chapter 16, Section 1 Slavery in the Territories What was the purpose of the Missouri Compromise? Why did conflict arise over the issue of slavery in the western territories? Why was the Free-Soil party founded?

4 Chapter 16, Section 1 The Missouri Compromise In 1819, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states. Representation in the Senate was evenly balanced between the North and the South. Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state. That would give the South a majority in the Senate. Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise. Missouri would join the Union as a slave state. Maine would join the Union as a free state. Congress drew an imaginary line across the southern border of Missouri at latitude 36º30´N. Slavery would be permitted in the Louisiana Purchase south of that line.

5 Chapter 16, Section 1 The Issue of Slavery in the West The ProblemAs a result of the Mexican War, the United States acquired a vast amount of land. The Missouri Compromise applied only to the Louisiana Purchase, not the new western lands. The ArgumentNorth: Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania called for a law to ban slavery in any territories won from Mexico. This proposal was known as the Wilmot Proviso. South: Southern leaders said Congress had no right to ban slavery in the West. The OutcomeThe house passed the Wilmot Proviso, but the Senate defeated it. The argument continued.

6 Chapter 16, Section 1 The Issue of Slavery in the West AbolitionistsSlavery should be banned throughout the country. It is morally wrong. Southern slaveholders Slavery should be allowed in any territory. Slaves who escape to the North should be returned. Other viewsThe Missouri Compromise line should be extended all across the Mexican Cession. Any state south of the line could allow slavery. States carved out of the Mexican Cession should decide the slavery issue by popular sovereignty; that is, voters in a new territory should decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery.

7 Chapter 16, Section 1 The Founding of the Free-Soil Party In 1848, slavery became an important election issue for the first time. Many northern Democrats and Whigs opposed the spread of slavery. They did not speak up because they did not want to lose southern votes. Also, they feared the slavery issue would split the nation. In 1848, antislavery members of both parties formed the Free-Soil party. Only a few members were abolitionists. The party’s main goal was to keep slavery out of the western territories.

8 Chapter 16, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment The main purpose of the Missouri Compromise was a) to abolish slavery in all of the Louisiana Purchase. b) to allow slavery in all of the Louisiana Purchase. c) to keep the Union from splitting. d) to keep slavery out of the Mexican Cession. People who favored popular sovereignty argued that a) voters in a new territory should decide whether to allow slavery there. b) the Missouri Compromise line should be extended across the Mexican Cession. c) slavery should be banned completely everywhere in the country. d) slavery should be allowed everywhere in the country. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

9 Chapter 16, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment The main purpose of the Missouri Compromise was a) to abolish slavery in all of the Louisiana Purchase. b) to allow slavery in all of the Louisiana Purchase. c) to keep the Union from splitting. d) to keep slavery out of the Mexican Cession. People who favored popular sovereignty argued that a) voters in a new territory should decide whether to allow slavery there. b) the Missouri Compromise line should be extended across the Mexican Cession. c) slavery should be banned completely everywhere in the country. d) slavery should be allowed everywhere in the country. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

10 Chapter 16, Section 2 The Compromise of 1850 Why did the slavery debate erupt again in 1850? What was the impact of the Compromise of 1850? How did Uncle Tom’s Cabin affect attitudes toward slavery?

11 Chapter 16, Section 2 The Slavery Debate Erupts Again

12 Chapter 16, Section 2 The Slavery Debate Erupts Again In 1849, there were 15 slave states and 15 free states. California asked to enter the Union as a free state. If California entered the Union as a free state, the North would have a majority in the Senate. The South feared that Oregon, Utah, and New Mexico would also soon join the Union as free states. Some southerners worried that they would be outvoted in the Senate. They said southern states should secede, or remove themselves, from the United States. Northerners said that California should be allowed to enter the Union as a free state because most of the territory lay north of the Missouri Compromise line.

13 Chapter 16, Section 2 The Slavery Debate Erupts Again Henry Clay of Kentucky He pleaded for the North and South to reach an agreement and warned that the nation could break apart. The Argument in the Senate John C. Calhoun of South Carolina He refused to compromise and insisted that slavery be allowed in the western territories. He demanded that fugitive, or runaway, slaves be returned to their owners as lost “property.” He said that if the North did not agree to these demands, the South would use force to leave the Union. Daniel Webster of Massachusetts He felt that slavery was evil, but the breakup of the United States would be worse. He warned against civil war, a war between people of the same country. He thought that northerners should be forced to return fugitive slaves.

14 Chapter 16, Section 2 The Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 Settles Texas/New Mexico border dispute Bans slave trade in Washington, D.C. Admits California as a free state Upholds popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah Includes Fugitive Slave Act

15 Chapter 16, Section 2 The Compromise of 1850

16 Chapter 16, Section 2 Impact of the Compromise of 1850 Provisions of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 All citizens must help catch runaway slaves. People who let fugitives escape could be fined $1,000 and jailed. Special courts would handle cases of runaways. There would be no jury trials. Judges would receive $10 for sending an accused runaway to the South and $5 for setting someone free. Response to the Fugitive Slave Act Some judges sent African Americans to the South whether or not they were runaways. The act enraged antislavery northerners. It made them feel as if they were part of the slave system. Tensions remained high because neither side got what it wanted.

17 Chapter 16, Section 2 Uncle Tom’s Cabin What is Uncle Tom’s Cabin? Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a novel called Uncle Tom’s Cabin to show the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Act. The book tells the story of Uncle Tom, an enslaved African American noted for his kindness and piety. How did people react to Uncle Tom’s Cabin? NorthernersSoutherners Northerners could no longer view slavery as a political problem for Congress to settle. More and more northerners now saw slavery as a moral problem facing every American. Southerners claimed that the book did not give a true picture of a slave’s life.

18 Chapter 16, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment Which one of the following statements was NOT a part of the Compromise of 1850? a) California was admitted to the Union as a free state. b) The slave trade ended in Washington, D.C. c) Southern states that objected to the compromise could secede peacefully. d) A strict fugitive slave law required northerners to return runaway slaves. Uncle Tom’s Cabin affected attitudes toward slavery because it a) described the cruelty of slavery. b) showed that most slaveholders acted as kind guardians. c) argued that northerners didn’t really know what slavery was like. d) explained why northerners should return fugitive slaves. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

19 Chapter 16, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment Which one of the following statements was NOT a part of the Compromise of 1850? a) California was admitted to the Union as a free state. b) The slave trade ended in Washington, D.C. c) Southern states that objected to the compromise could secede peacefully. d) A strict fugitive slave law required northerners to return runaway slaves. Uncle Tom’s Cabin affected attitudes toward slavery because it a) described the cruelty of slavery. b) showed that most slaveholders acted as kind guardians. c) argued that northerners didn’t really know what slavery was like. d) explained why northerners should return fugitive slaves. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

20 Chapter 16, Section 5 Section 5 Assessment To many southerners, Lincoln’s election meant southern states had to secede from the Union because a) the Democratic party had split in two. b) they believed that Lincoln’s election meant the South no longer had a voice in the national government. c) they were looking for a way to compromise. d) they wanted to save the Union. The Civil War began when a) Southern Democrats all voted for Breckinridge. b) South Carolina seceded from the Union. c) the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter. d) Lincoln sent a shipload of weapons to Fort Sumter. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.


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