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AGROEKOLOGI: PRINSIP & PRAKTIKAL Smno.psdl.ppsub.2013 Mk. Agroekologi.

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Presentation on theme: "AGROEKOLOGI: PRINSIP & PRAKTIKAL Smno.psdl.ppsub.2013 Mk. Agroekologi."— Presentation transcript:

1 AGROEKOLOGI: PRINSIP & PRAKTIKAL Smno.psdl.ppsub.2013 Mk. Agroekologi

2 What is Sustainable Agriculture? “…a journey, not a destination” No one has figured out the perfect way to farm, and probably no one ever will. So sustainable agriculture involves a continuing search for better ways to produce, process, and distribute food and fiber. Sustainable farmers are always asking what could be improved.

3 Sustainable Agriculture “…an integrated system of plant and animal production practices…that will: 1.Memenuhi kebutuhan manusia akan pangan dan serat 2.Memperbaiki kualitas lingkungan 3.Menggunakan sumberdaya non-renewable secara se-efisien mungkin 4.Layak secara ekonomi 5.Memperbaiki kualitas hidup manusia.” Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

4 PERTANIAN BERLANJUT A whole-systems approach to food, feed, and fiber production that balances environmental soundness, social equity, and economic viability among all sectors of the public, including international and intergenerational peoples. Keberlanjutan harus diperluas tidak hanya secara global tetapi JUGA tanpa batas waktu, dan untuk semua organisme hidup termasuk manusia. Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

5 TIGA PILAR UTAMA KEBERLANJUTAN Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

6 RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Menjaga KELESTARIAN Kualitas tanah, air, dan udara Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

7 Bekerjasama dengan alam & Memodel sistem alami Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

8 BERLANJUT SECARA EKONOMI 1.Provides a secure living for farm families 2. Provides a secure living to other workers in the food system 3.Provides access to good food for all Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

9 1.Good for families 2.Supports communities 3.Fair to all involved Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University BERLANJUT SECARA SOSIAL

10 Successful Sustainable Agroecosystems 1.Maintain their natural resource base 2.Rely on minimum artificial inputs from outside the farm system 3.Manage pests and diseases through internal regulating mechanisms 4.Recover from the disturbances caused by cultivation and harvest Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

11 Agroecology ? 1.The application of ecological science to the design and management of sustainable agroecosystems 2.A holistic approach to agriculture and agriculture development based on traditional, alternative, and local small-scale agriculture 3.Linking ecology, socioeconomics and culture to sustain agricultural production, farming communities, and environmental health Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

12 Principles to Agriculture i.e. “Agro-Ecology” Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

13 Definisi Ekologi [Ecology is a science, not an ideology] 1.Ernst Haeckel (1866) “The comprehensive science of the relationship of the organism to the environment” 2.Elton (1927) “Ecology is scientific natural history” [too quaint – not used any more] 3.Andrewartha and Birch (1954) “the study of the distribution and abundance or organisms. 4.Odum (1971) …”the study of the interactions between/among organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter.” …”the study of the structure and function of nature” Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

14 Prinsip-prinsip Agroekologi 1.Menggunakan sumberdaya terbarukan 2.Meminimumkan senyawa toksik 3.Conserve resources 4.Manage ecological relationships 5.Adjust to local environments 6.Diversification 7.Empower people 8.Manage whole systems 9.Memaksimumkan manfaat jangka panjang 10.Nilai-nilai Kesehatan Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

15 Menggunakan sumberdaya yang terbarukan 1.Renewable resources of energy instead of non-renewable sources 2.Biological nitrogen fixation 3.Naturally occurring materials instead of synthetics xenobiotic inputs 4.Sumberdaya On-farm 5.Daur ulang sisa-sisa panen di lahan – hara tanaman Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

16 Meminimumkan senyawa toksik 1.Mengurangi atau menghentikan penggunaan xenobiotics – pestisida 2.Menerapkan praktek budidaya pertanian yang minim pencemaran lingkungan 3.Use naturally occurring compounds that degrade into non-toxic compounds Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

17 Konservasi Sumberdaya 1.Conserve soil- Sustain soil nutrients and organic matter, Minimize soil erosion – perennials, no- tillage, mulch 2.Konservasi air - Dry farm, Use efficient irrigation systems 3.Konservasi Energi – Teknologi efisien energi 4.Conserve genetic resources – Seed, local varieties 5.Menghemat modal - Mengurangi pengeluaran Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

18 Mengelola Hubungan EKologis 1.Manage pests, diseases, and weeds 2.Intercropping & cover cropping 3.Mengintegrasikan ternak 4.Meningkatkan biota tanah yang menguntungkan – Mycorrhizae – Rhizobia – Free-living nitrogen fixers – Plant growth promoting bacteria Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

19 Menyesuaikan dengan Lingkungan Lokal 1.Match cropping patterns to the landscape 2.Adaptasi tanaman dan ternak dengan kondisi ekologis usahatani Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

20 Diversifikasi 1.Landscape – maintain undisturbed areas as buffer zones, use contour and strip tillage, maintain riparian buffer zones, use rotational grazing 2.Biota – intercrop, rotate crop, use polyculture, integrate animals in system, use multiple species of crops and animals in the farm, use multiple varieties and landraces of crops and animals on farm 3.Ekonomi – pertanian produk organik, pertanian berbasis masyarakat Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

21 Memberdayakan Manusia 1.Ensure that local people control their development process 2.Memanfaatkan kearifan Lokal 3.Promote multi-directional transfer of knowledge, as opposed to top-down knowledge transfer 4.Engage in people-centric development 5.Memperkuat komunitas 6.Jaminan tenaga kerja pertanian Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

22 Mengelola keseluruhan sistem Menggunakan proses perencanaan yang melibatkan beragam skala agroekosistem: – Landscapes – Households – Farms – Komunitas - Masyarakat – Bioregions – Nasional Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

23 Memaksimumkan manfaat jangka panjang 1.Maximize intergenerational benefits – long term 2.Maximize livelihoods and quality of life in rural areas 3.Facilitate generational transfers 4.Menggunakan strategi jangka panjang 5.Memasukkan keberlanjutan jangka panjang 6.Membangun kesuburan tanah 7.Nilai tambah produk pertanian Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

24 Nilai-nilai Kesehatan 1.Kesehatan Manusia 2.Cultural health 3.Environmental health 4.Animal health 5.Kesehatan Tanaman Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

25 Goals: akhir yang diinginkan Practices: Aktivitas untuk mencapai sasaran Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

26 Bgm mencapai Sasaran? 1.Mencari tahu di mana Posisi Anda berada 2.Analyze your strengths and weaknesses 3.Select strategies (practices) 4.Keep monitoring your progress 5.Re-evaluasi Sasaran dan Rencana Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

27 Where are we? Apa saja…….. Strengths & Weaknesses …. sistem pertanian kita sekarang ini? Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

28 Keberhasilan 1.abundant food supply in the developed world 2.fresh fruits and vegetables available year-round 3.Pangan murah 4.luxury foods such as coffee, tea, chocolate, and spices easily available around the world 5.effective food preservation technologies (refrigeration, freezing, canning, packaging) 6.Pangan mudah diperoleh 7.Mekanisasi menghasilkan efisiensi tenagakerja 8.Perbaikan konservasi tanah dna air 9.availability of agricultural inputs for quick solutions to production problems Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

29 Problematika 1.Kehilangan tanah terus berlangsung 2.food safety concerns (mad cow disease, food poisoning outbreaks, antibiotic resistance, toxins and pesticides) 3.water pollution, air pollution (& odors), habitat loss, water depletion 4.continuing hunger – and rise of obesity 5.failing farms, economic uncertainty and stress 6.declining communities 7.farm accidents, chronic diseases linked to agricultural chemicals 8.Ketergantungan pada bahan bakar fosil, pemanasan global 9.Konversi lahan pertanian menjadi lahan terbangun 10.Kesulitan mmeulai usahatani. Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

30 Elemen-elemen Keberlanjutan Integrated pest management 2 Management intensive grazing 3 Soil conservation 4 Water quality 5 Cover crops 6 Crop/landscape diversity 7 Nutrient management 8 Agroforestry 9 Marketing Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

31 Building Soils for Better Crops 2nd Edition Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University

32 Manage Insects on Your Farm A Guide to Ecological Strategies Krish Jayachandran Department of Environmental Studies - Florida International University Dimana musuh alami bagi hama padi?

33 KESIMPULAN 1.Pertanian telah mencapai banyak Hal 2.Namun masih banyak maslaah yang harus diselesaikan 3.Agroecology and sustainable agriculture is about trying to solve these problems – without creating new ones.


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