Presentation on theme: "ES and Agroecology Ecosystem Services: an opportunity for agroecology? Marc Dufrêne and Nicolas Dendoncker."— Presentation transcript:
ES and Agroecology Ecosystem Services: an opportunity for agroecology? Marc Dufrêne and Nicolas Dendoncker
ES and Agroecology Ecosystem Services: Ecosystems’ dependencies for human well-being SUPPORTING -Soil fertility and structure -Nutrient cycling -Water cycling -Genetic biodiversity SUPPORTING -Soil fertility and structure -Nutrient cycling -Water cycling -Genetic biodiversity REGULATING -Soil maintenance -Pollination -Pest control -Habitat for crop auxiliaries -Water purification -Air quality REGULATING -Soil maintenance -Pollination -Pest control -Habitat for crop auxiliaries -Water purification -Air quality AGROECO- SYSTEMS PROVISIONING -Food -Fibres -Agro-fuels PROVISIONING -Food -Fibres -Agro-fuels NOT IN MARKET -Water conservation -Soil conservation -Carbon storage -Landscape aesthetics -Spirituality -Habitats for Fauna and Flora NOT IN MARKET -Water conservation -Soil conservation -Carbon storage -Landscape aesthetics -Spirituality -Habitats for Fauna and Flora FOR BY FOSSIL FUELS FOR BY
ES and Agroecology Ecosystem Services: Why should we care? Because everybody else does!
ES and Agroecology Ecosystem Services: Why should we care? Because an ES assessment framework can provide a comprehensive yet operational tool for natural resource management and land use (including agricultural) planning Analytical-deliberative frameworks need to be developed, e.g. in the context of land consolidation plans The links between agroecology and ES have however yet to be unraveled
EcosystemsServicesSociety PressuresImpactsDrivers ES and Agroecology Many publications on direct impact of agroecological practices on (functional) biodiversity and ecosystems Only very few on final and global impact on a large diversity of ES
One meta-analysis on 12 ES : Kremen and Miles, Ecosystem services in biologically diversified versus conventional farming systems: benefits, externalities, and trade-offs. Ecology and Society. ES and Agroecology biodiversity soil quality nutrient management water-holding capacity carbon sequestration energy efficiency resistance to climate change crop productivity control of weeds control of diseases control of pests pollination services Strong evidence Positive effect but not sufficient more research and field experience need to be conducted as one practice influences multiple ES, research must be holistic detailed agroecological research is needed to develop crop productivity and region-specific approaches to control of weeds, diseases and pests Conclusions : Weak evidence
ES and Agroecology Holistic approach : nested structure and processes LandscapeFarmPlot Multiscalar effect of agroecological methods on ES
ES and Agroecology : what are the links ?
Regulating Pollution, water & mass flow, climate, biotic Cultural Recreational, aesthetic, symbolic values Capital, work, energy Abiotic factors Plot - fields Landscape Farm Mixed varieties Mixed crops Livestocks Crop rotation Cover crops Fallow fields Hedgerows Buffer strips Riparian corridors Woodlots Meadows Natural areas Agroecological methods Farmer Society Community Well-being (benefits and values) Provisioning Nutrition, water supply, materials, energy s Ecosystem services Functional agrobiodiversity Soil structure & fertility, water supply, pollination, genetic diversity, biological control, … (Supporting services) s Neutral biodiversity Biotic factors
ES and Agroecology Agro- ecological practices and ES supportingprovisioningregulatingculturalother benefits Soils Functionnal biodiversity Food Water Materials Energy Pollutions Floods Climate Biological processes Natural surroundings Non-rival activities Rival activities Symbolic values Neutral biodiversity Insurance value Farmer health Empowering people Plot scale Species associationXXX X XX X Permanent coverXX X XXX X XX Mulching, compostXXXX XXXX XXX Integrate livestockX XX XXX Aerial nitrate fixation X X XX Biological control X X X XXXX AgroforestryXX XXXXXXXXXXXXX X Reduced tillageXX XX X X X Genetic diversity X XX X Interfaces Tree stripsXX●XXXXXXXXXX XX X Grassland stripsXX●XX XXXXXX XX X Nature protectionXX●X XXXXXXXXXX X Farm scale PolyculturesXXX XXXXXXX XXX X Alternative markets X XX XX X X Organic farmingXX X X XXXX Agrotourism XXXX X X Local knowledgeXX XXXXX X X X Adapted from Kremen & Miles (2012) or expected trends Adapted from Gliessman (2007) ● Potentially negative effect X
Crop capacity Storm protection Livestock Pollination Air quality Climate regulation Timber production Erosion control Water regulation Soil quality regulation Water provision Agroecology improve ES bundles ES and Agroecology From mono-functional landscape to multi-functional landscape Adapted from Maes et al. (2011). European assessment of the provision of ES.
ES and Agroecology There are significant correlations between the need of PlotLandscape Farm Harvest Milk Establish Animal Food Energy Fibers Manure Grazing Landscape consolidation ES balance at landscape level Supporting ES Regulating ES Cultural ES Provisioning ES autonomy at farm level and
ES and Agroecology Research proposal : unraveling the links between agroecology and ecosystem services to facilitate an agroecological transition Research and field experience on agroecological methods
ES and Agroecology Performance of non-conventional agro-ecosystems ? Valorisation of field residues ? Tools and methods ? Alternative valorisation of agricultural products ? 1. Agroforestry 2. Intercropping 3. Agrosylviculture 4. Herbaceous strips 5. Residue management & cover crops One example : AgricultureIsLife project at Gx-ABT => 15 PhD working together on 40 ha of experimental fields Food Water supply Materials Energy Pollution regulation Erosion regulation Climate regulation Biological control Natural surroundings Outdoor activities Biodiversity
Economic analyses of farms and (local) food systems Research to optimise landscape structure to maximise ES, farm or local community autonomy Holistic monitoring of large case studies (mid and long term) Research to optimise landscape structure to maximise ES, farm or local community autonomy Research and field experience on agroecological methods ES and Agroecology PES analyses to evaluate when to support farm constraints Research proposal : unraveling the links between agroecology and ecosystem services to facilitate an agroecological transition Thank you for your attention ! PES analyses to evaluate when to support farm constraints