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INDO – EUROPEAN ROOTS History of the English Language.

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Presentation on theme: "INDO – EUROPEAN ROOTS History of the English Language."— Presentation transcript:

1 INDO – EUROPEAN ROOTS History of the English Language

2 Indo-European Roots Focusing On: Various Modern English Words which Derived from the Following Indo-European Roots

3 Indo-European Roots Theme: Assorted Parts of the Human Body

4 BHRU… Eyebrow Originally contracted from *bhru -. 1. brow, from Old English br – 2. eyebrow, eyelid, eyelash, from Germanic *br s Could possibly also mean in the sense of a beam of wood or a log bridge. 1. bridge, from Old English brycg(e) 2. bridge from Germanic *brugj (with cognates in Celtic and Slavic). __

5 DENT… Tooth Originally * 1d-ent-, “biting,” present participle of ed- in the earlier meaning “to bite.” 1. tooth, from Old English t th 2. tooth, from Germanic * A second form involves d t- 1. tusk, from Old English t sc, t x 2. canine tooth, from Germanic *tunth-sk- A third form involves *dent 1. dental, dentate, denti-, denticle, dentist; dandelion, edentate, edentulous, indent1, indenture, trident, from Latin d ns The last form involves *don’t, ultimately becoming odont- in Greek 1. –odon, –odont, odonto-; ceratodus, mastodon, from Greek od n, odous

6 EL… Elbow (Forearm) Extended form *el-in -, elbow. 1. ell2, from Old English eln 2. forearm, cubit, from Germanic *elin 3. elbow, from Old English elnboga, 4. elbow, from Germanic compound *elino-bug n-, “bend of the forearm,” elbow 5. ulna, from Latin ulna, forearm A second form involves *ol-en -. 1. uilleann pipe, from Old Irish uilenn, elbow A third form involves * l-en -. 1. olecranon, from Greek len, elbow The last form involves *el-in-. 1. arshin, from Old Persian ara n-, 2. ell, from Indo-Iranian *aratn(i)-, probably from a variant *el-etn- of *el-in-.

7 GENU… Jawbone (Chin) Oldest form * enu-, becoming *genu- in centum languages. The first form involves *genw-. 1. chin, from Old English cin(n) 2. chin, from Germanic *kinnuz. The second form involves *genu-. 1. genial2, from Greek genus, jaw, chin. The third form involves *gn -dho-. 1. gnathal, gnathic, –gnathous; agnathan, chaetognath, from Greek gnathos, jaw. The last form involves *g(h)enu-. 1. hanuman, from Sanskrit hanu, jaw. /

8 KAPUT… Head Multiple derivations include: 1. head; behead, forehead, from Old English h afod, head 2. hetman, from Old High German houbit, head Both 1 and 2 from Germanic *haubudam, *haubidam 3. caddie, cadet, cape2, capital1, capital2, capitate, capitation, capitellum, capitulate, capitulum, capo1, capo2, caprice, captain, cattle, caudillo, chapiter, chapter, chef, chief, chieftain, corporal2; achieve, biceps, decapitate, kerchief, mischief, occiput, precipitate, recapitulate, sinciput, triceps from Latin caput, head

9 LEB… Lip (To Lick) Multiple derivations include: 1. lip, from Old English lippa 2. lip, from Germanic *lep- The second form involves *lab-, or *lab-yo-. 1. labial and labium, from Latin labium, lip The Last form involves *lab-ro-. 1. labellum, labret, labrum, from Latin labrum, lip

10 MAN… Hand Derivatives include manacle, maneuver, and manure. 1. manacle, manage, manège, manner, manual, manubrium, manus; amanuensis, maintain, maneuver, manicotti, manicure, manifest, mansuetude, manufacture, manumit, manure, manuscript, mastiff, mortmain, and quadrumanous, from Latin manus, hand 2. maniple, manipulation, from Latin manipulus, handful The first form involves *man-ko-, maimed in the hand. 1. manqué, from Latin mancus, maimed, defective. Another derivative includes emancipate, 1. from Latin compound manceps, “he who takes by the hand,” purchaser The last set of derivatives contains mandamus, mandate, Maundy Thursday; command, commando, commend, countermand, demand, recommend, remand, from Latin compound mand re, “to put into someone's hand,” entrust, order

11 NAS… Nose Multiple derivations include: 1. nose, nuzzle; nostril, from Old English nosu 2. nose, from Germanic zero-grade form *nus 3. ness, from Old English næss 4. headland, from Germanic *nasja- One particular form involves *n s-. 1. naris, from Latin n ris, nostril 2. similarly, the form *n ss- is used for the derivatives nasal, naso-; nasturtium, pince-nez, from Latin n sus, nose 3. nark2, from Romany n k, 4. nose, from expressive Indo-Aryan form *nakka-.

12 Works Cited "Indo-European Roots Index." 2000. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 21 Sept. 2008.

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