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The Hebrew Café Textbook: Cook & Holmstedt’s Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online:

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Presentation on theme: "The Hebrew Café Textbook: Cook & Holmstedt’s Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Hebrew Café Textbook: Cook & Holmstedt’s Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online: Textbook: Cook & Holmstedt’s Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online:

2 The Hebrew Café Slide 2

3 The Hebrew Café What are the three “inseparable prepositions” and what do they mean? Translate the following words or phrases into Hebrew: - The king.-There is no king in land. -The slave.-There is no slave in the house. -The way.-There is no way to Israel. -The house.-The king came out ( יָצָא ) from the house.. -The slave.-The slave is the same as the king. The main issues in lesson 3 dealt with the definite article, the three inseparable prepositions and the preposition מִן and how each is pointed (vocalized) when they come into contact with a noun. This will all get much clearer as you get experience reading text. Slide 3

4 The Hebrew Café Slide 4

5 The Hebrew Café In English, we say that a noun is a person, place, thing or idea. Thus, “friend” is a noun, since it is a person; “school” is a noun, since it is a place; “pencil” is a noun, since it is a thing; and, “attention” is a noun, since it is an idea. Generally, nouns in English are made plural by adding –s or –es to the end of the word. Thus, we have dog-dogs, boy-boys, friend-friends and lady-ladies. There are irregular plurals in English, such as woman-women and child- children. Possession is shown regularly by adding ’s to singular nouns (my friend’s house) and just ’ to plural nouns (my friends’ house). Possessives are always placed before the head of noun phrases in English. Slide 5

6 The Hebrew Café In Hebrew, by comparison, nouns are again representative of persons, places, things and ideas. מֶ֫לֶךְ (king) is a noun. שָׁמַ֫יִם (heaven) is a noun. שִׁיר (song/poem) is a noun. And, אַהֲבָה (love) is a noun. All nouns in Hebrew are either masculine or feminine in gender. Even nouns that don’t have gender in English do in Hebrew. For example, “table,” “throne” and “day” are masculine, while “land,” “ground” and “commandment” are feminine. There’s no real reason behind how the language decides what is masculine and feminine, but there are signs in the words themselves to indicate whether they are masculine or feminine (most of the time). Slide 6

7 The Hebrew Café Hebrew grammar books generally say that masculine nouns are unmarked in the singular (they have no ending – just the root letters) and are marked with ִים in the plural, while feminine nouns end in either ה or ת and are marked with וֹת in the plural. Examples of this are: מֶ֫לֶךְ – מְלָכִיםכֶּ֫לֶב – כְּלָבִיםיֶ֫לֶד – יְלָדִים kingdog (m.)boy מַלְכָּה – מְלָכוֹתכַּלְבָּה – כְּלָבוֹתיַלְדָּה – יְלָדוֹת queendog (f.)girl מַלְכוּת – מַלְכֻיּוֹת סוּסָה – סוּסוֹת דָּבָר – דְּבָרִים kingshipmareword, message Slide 7

8 The Hebrew Café The fact is, though, that “exceptions” make up about 30% of the cases. So, really, a masculine noun can have a feminine-looking plural ( אָב - אָבוֹת – father). All of these words are masculine. Notice the “feminine” ending. חֲלוֹם – חֲלוֹמוֹת חָלוֹן – חֲלוֹנוֹת כִּסֵּא – כִּסְּאוֹת dreamwindowchair, throne אָב – אָבוֹת שֻׁלְחָן – שֻׁלְחָנוֹת fathertable These nouns are feminine with “masculine” endings: מִלָּה – מִלִּיםשָׁנָה – שָׁנִיםעִיר – עָרִים wordyearcity Slide 8

9 The Hebrew Café Body parts are generally unmarked but are feminine. יָדעַ֫יִןרֶ֫גֶלפָּנִיםאֹ֫זֶןכַּף יָד handeyelegfaceearhand A few exceptions to this are: זְרֹעַשֵׂעָראַף upper armhairnose This should cover everything that we need to know about Hebrew nouns at this point. Notice that we have not yet mentioned anything about possession in Hebrew. This is being saved for later, since it will take some explanation of its own. Slide 9

10 The Hebrew Café Slide 10

11 The Hebrew Café Verbs – Definitions Hebrew verbs (just like nouns) are regularly built on three-letter (“triliteral” or “triconsonantal”) roots. This is called the shoresh. The root מ - ל - ך can be arranged in many different ways: Slide 11 מֶ֫לֶךְ ( מַלְכְּ *) [noun]king מַלְכָּה [noun]queen מַלְכוּת [noun]kingship, reign מַמְלָכָה [noun]kingdom מָלַךְ [verb]he was king, reigned הִמְלִיךְ [verb]he made X king, caused X to reign

12 The Hebrew Café Verbs (cont.) So, the root of a word refers to the three letters that make up the underlying idea behind it. With our previous example, the root mem- lamed-kaf ( מ - ל - ך ) is associated with kingliness or royalty. The root shin- kuf-resh ( שׁ - ק - ר ), however, is associated with deception and falsehood. We have שֶׁ֫קֶר (“lie, falsehood”) and שִׁקֵּר (“he lied”) associated with it. The binyan (Hebrew, בִּנְיָן “structure” from the root ב - נ - ה associated with building) of a verb is the pattern that it falls into. There are seven regular binyanim that we will learn as well as some offshoots of them. For example, מָלַךְ “he reigned” is in the binyan kal (the “simple” binyan – since it is based on the root letters without any additions) while הִמְלִיךְ “he caused X to reign” is in the binyan hiphil (which is causative). In the meantime, we’re learning only the binyan kal. Slide 12

13 The Hebrew Café Verbs (cont.) Tense generally refers to time reference, either past, present or future. English has all three tenses in various forms. Biblical Hebrew (as opposed to modern Hebrew) does not have any tenses. When we speak of verb forms in biblical Hebrew, we need to speak of aspect rather than tense. There are two aspects of the verb in Hebrew – perfect and imperfect. The perfect is generally associated with the past tense when it stands alone. From this aspect, we see the action as a whole event. We look at it from outside as if it’s complete (“perfect”). Alternatively, the imperfect is generally associated with the future tense. From this aspect, we see the events unfolding around us, as incomplete. Slide 13

14 The Hebrew Café Verbs (cont.) Hebrew also has what has come to refer to the “present tense” in modern thinking. It is far less frequent than either of the two finite verb paradigms. We tend to call it an “active participle” and translate it either with the present tense or with –ing. For the moment, we are going to look only at part of the perfect. Specifically, we’re going to learn the singular forms. Number is either singular or plural. It matches the subject of the sentence. Gender in verbs can be masculine, feminine or common (either for men or women). Person can be either first (the one speaking), second (the one spoken to) or third (the one spoken about). Slide 14

15 The Hebrew Café Slide 15

16 The Hebrew Café Slide 16 פָּקַ֫דְתִּי ( תִּי ) ‘I attended’ (1 CS ) פָּקַ֫דְתְּ ( תְּ ) ‘you attended’ (2 FS ) פָּקַ֫דְתָּ ( תָּ ) ‘you attended’ (2 MS ) פָּֽקְדָה ( ָה ) ‘she attended’ (3 FS ) פָּקַד (-) ‘he attended’ (3 MS )

17 The Hebrew Café Slide 17 שָׁמַ֫רְתִּי ( תִּי ) ‘I kept’ (1 CS ) שָׁמַ֫רְתְּ ( תְּ ) ‘you kept’ (2 FS ) שָׁמַ֫רְתָּ ( תָּ ) ‘you kept’ (2 MS ) שָֽׁמְרָה ( ָה ) ‘she kept’ (3 FS ) שָׁמַר (-) ‘he kept’ (3 MS )

18 The Hebrew Café Slide 18 הָלַ֫כְתִּי ( תִּי ) ‘I went’ (1 CS ) הָלַ֫כְתְּ ( תְּ ) ‘you went’ (2 FS ) הָלַ֫כְתָּ ( תָּ ) ‘you went’ (2 MS ) הָֽלְכָה ( ָה ) ‘she went’ (3 FS ) הָלַךְ (-) ‘he went’ (3 MS )

19 The Hebrew Café Slide 19

20 The Hebrew Café The fourth lesson’s goals are basically as follows: Basic noun concepts: There are masculine and feminine nouns. Masculines are generally unmarked in the singular and -im in the plural. Feminines end in heh or tav and have -ot in the plural. Basic verb concepts: Person = 1, 2 or 3. Gender = M or F. Number = S, P or C. Binyan = structure (for now, kal is all we’re learning) Aspect = PERFECT or IMPERFECT. How to conjugate a verb in binyan kal in the singular. Slide 20

21 The Hebrew Café Textbook: Cook & Holmstedt’s Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online: Textbook: Cook & Holmstedt’s Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online:

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