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The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Textbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online:

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1 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Textbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online: Textbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online:

2 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Slide 2

3 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Last weeks lesson covered a lot of information regarding both nouns (in Hebrew, שְׁמוֹת עֶצֶם ) and verbs (that is, פְּעָלִים ). With nouns, we learned that they can be either masculine or feminine. Gender normally follows the natural gender of the noun. For example, a boy is masculine and a girl is feminine. But there is also grammatical gender for all other nouns. For example, the Hebrew word for table ( שֻׁלְחָן ) is masculine, while the Hebrew word for door ( דֶּ֫לֶת ) is feminine. Grammatical gender cannot be justied by logic. It just has to be learned. There is nothing in Hebrew that corresponds to neuter, for which we use it in English. Literally everything is assigned a gender! Slide 3

4 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Continuing with nouns, we learned that there are normal patterns for the endings. Most masculine nouns take an -im sufx to form the plural. Thus, we have מְלָכִים that comes from מֶ֫לֶךְ and כְּלָבִים from כֶּ֫לֶב. Most feminine nouns are marked with either heh ( ה ) or tav ( ת ) and take an -ot sufx to form the plural. Thus, we have מְלָכוֹת from מַלְכָּה and כְּלָבוֹת from כַּלְבָּה. You should expect changes in the vowel patterns as we go from singular to plural. I can provide a list of regular changes (taken from Seows A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew §III.2) should you request one. Almost all body parts are assigned the feminine gender. They are generally unmarked in the singular (they have no heh or tav to mark them as feminine). Their plural is often with the dual ending ( ַיִם ). Slide 4

5 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum With regard to the Hebrew verb, we learned the singular forms. Every verb form is marked for gender in Hebrew. We have to be able to identify a forms person (rst, second or third), number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine). First person is the speaker (in English, either I or we). Second person is the hearer (always translated as you in English). Third person is the object of the speech, the one being spoken of (that is, he, she, it or they). I, you, he, she and it are singular. We, you and they are plural. Notice the ambiguity in the English you. In Hebrew, this ambiguity is resolved. There are forms for masculine and feminine singular, as well as masculine and feminine plural. Slide 5

6 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum In the previous lesson, we learned only the singular forms. Lesson 4 exercise 3 asked you to conjugate ve verbs. Here are the answers: Slide 6 שָׁמַ֫רְתִּי שָׁמַרְתְּשָׁמַ֫רְתָּ שָֽׁמְרָהשָׁמַר מָלַ֫כְתִּי מָלַכְתְּמָלַ֫כְתָּ מָֽלְכָהמָלַךְ פָּקַ֫דְתִּי פָּקַדְתְּפָּקַ֫דְתָּ פָּֽקְדָהפָּקַד זָכַ֫רְתִּי זָכַרְתְּזָכַ֫רְתָּ זָֽכְרָהזָכַר שָׁפַ֫טְתִּי שָׁפַטְתְּשָׁפַ֫טְתָּ שָֽׁפְטָהשָׁפַט

7 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Slide 7

8 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum In the previous lesson we discussed the Hebrew noun and how it exhibits number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine) in its form. In this lesson we must add to the options for number. There are some words in Hebrew that take a dual ending rather than a plural one. Dual simply means that there are two. We use it for things that naturally comes in pairs. The dual ending is -áyim instead of the plural -im or -ot. The dual is very common in body parts: יָד > יָדַ֫יִםעַיִן > עֵינַ֫יִםרֶגֶל > רַגְלַ֫יִםכָּנָף > כְּנָפַ֫יִם handseyeslegswings When learning vocab, you should learn the pl./du. along with the sing. Slide 8

9 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Slide 9

10 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum So far we have learned the following forms in the qal system: To these singular forms, we now need to add the plural forms to complete the qal paradigm. Slide 10 femininemasculine rst person I went אֲנִי הָלַ֫כְתְּי second person you (f.) went אַתְּ הָלַכְתְּ you (m.) went אַתָּה הָלַ֫כְתָּ third person she went הִיא הָֽלְכָה he went הוּא הָלַךְ

11 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Slide 11 femininemasculine rst person I captured אֲנִי לָכַ֫דְתְּי singular second person you (f.) captured אַתְּ לָכַדְתְּ you (m.) captured אַתָּה לָכַ֫דְתָּ third person she captured הִיא לָֽכְדָה he captured הוּא לָכַד rst person we captured אֲנַ ֫ חְנוּ לָכַ֫דְנוּ plural second person you (f.) captured אַתֶּן לְכַדְתֶּן you (m.) captured אַתֶּם לְכַדְתֶּם third person they captured הֵם\הֵן לָֽכְדוּ

12 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Slide 12 femininemasculine rst person I went אֲנִי הָלַ֫כְתְּי singular second person you (f.) went אַתְּ הָלַכְתְּ you (m.) went אַתָּה הָלַ֫כְתָּ third person she went הִיא הָֽלְכָה he went הוּא הָלַךְ rst person we went אֲנַ ֫ חְנוּ הָלַ֫כְנוּ plural second person you (f.) went אַתֶּן הֲלַכְתֶּן you (m.) went אַתֶּם הֲלַכְתֶּם third person they went הֵם\הֵן הָֽלְכוּ

13 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Slide 13

14 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum The fth lessons goals are basically as follows: Noun concepts: In addition to singular and plural, Hebrew has a dual form. This form is created by adding -áyim instead of -im or -ot. Verb concepts: The plural forms of the binyan qal. Notice the endings for אַתֶּם and אַתֶּן, which pull the stress to the end. Look for vowel changes in the structure of the verb. Slide 14

15 The Hebrew Café thehebrewcafe.com/forum Textbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online: Textbook: Cook & Holmstedts Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (2009) Found here online:


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