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4 Perspective, Scene Design, and Basic Animation.

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Presentation on theme: "4 Perspective, Scene Design, and Basic Animation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 4 Perspective, Scene Design, and Basic Animation

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain game perspectives Describe the elements of a scene. Identify elements used to convey mood and theme. Explain issues of clarity for scaled computer- generated images. Describe how to construct 3D models. Contrast static and active animation.

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Define terminology used in artistic creations and computer-generated images. Create artistic assets for a video game. Summarize how pixel and vertex shading are used to create the illusion of depth.

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Perspective How gameplay is displayed Position of player on screen First person Second person Third person

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. First-Person Perspective First-person perspective is seen through the eyes of the characterFirst-person perspective Like a head-mounted cameracamera (www.freeonlinegames.com)

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Second-Person Perspective Second-person perspective is seen through the eyes of the opponentSecond-person perspective Very rarely used (www.kongregate.com)

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Second-Person Perspective In this game, the player is the batter and the computer is the pitcher

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Third-Person Perspective Third-person perspective is seen through the eyes of a spectatorThird-person perspective Overhead Behind Profile or platform view Many other viewing angles

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Third-Person Perspective These games have a classic platform view (www.kewlbox.com;

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Third-Person Perspective This game has an overhead view (www.freeonlinegames.com)

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Changeable Perspective “Switch view” button (player selects) Switch view due to game action (game determines); for example: Third person while running First person while in targeting mode

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Changeable Perspective This game features a “switch view” button

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scenes Placement of game objects Attractive layout Obstacles Objectives Conveys story Conveys mood

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Object Placement Foreground Background Active objects Background objects Backdrop objects Text objects or buttons

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scene Feature Examine the objects in this scene. Identify and discuss the scene elements that do not match. Why do these elements not match?

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Design Objects Active objects Interactive Can move Background objects Not interactive, like the sky Backdrop objects Scene elements, like platforms and walls Player avatar The character

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Design Objects Note the various types of objects in a game

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Mood Through color palettecolor palette Red = passion Yellow = cheerful Blue = peaceful Gray = gloomy Through object shape Sharp edges = scary Soft edges = calming

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Theme Through traditional or historic objects Cultural themes Historic periods Mythology Religion Holidays

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Mood and Theme Feature Examine both scenes Similar objects appear in both How does color palette set the mood in each? How is theme established by use of traditional objects in each?

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scene Design Feature Consider the scene on the next slide: List five background objects List one foreground object List the active objects in the scene What is the mood of the scene? How does color palette help set that mood?

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scene Design Feature

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Storyboards A plan to tell the game story Sketch important frames Describe important action

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Image Properties Digital images Measured in pixelspixels Clarity Resolution

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Clarity Pixel density Dots per inch (dpi) High resolution vs. low resolution

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Resizing and Resolution Enlarging low-resolution images Pixilation Blurry Interpolation Color blending Native poles Dithering

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Resizing and Resolution The computer may blend colors when interpolating pixels

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Game Map Game map often is larger than screen size Map must scroll into the visible screenscroll Images can blur if movement is too fast Game can lag if image resolution is too high

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Color Model RGB Red, green, and blue Colors blended to create all other colors

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Color Model Creating an RGB color in Microsoft Office

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Color Model HSL Hue, saturation, and luminescence The values for these properties create all colors

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Color Model Creating an HSL color in Microsoft Office

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Two-Dimensional Games Length and width only; no depth Game frame Includes all items needed to complete a level May not be all visible to player at once

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Two-Dimensional Games Visible play area Part of the game frame seen by the player Scrolling if needed 2D assets are called sprites Sprite character set (sprite sheet)Sprite character set Movement direction animations Stopped animation images

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Two-Dimensional Games A sprite character set from RPG Maker XP

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Two-Dimensional Games Game frame coordinates Cartesian coordinate system has +Y up The Games Factory 2 has +Y down

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Two and One-Half–Dimensional Games Hybrid 2D game map with 3D objects 3D game map with 2D objects Isometric board games

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Two and One-Half–Dimensional Games

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Three-Dimensional Games Length, width, and depth Coordinates in X, Y, and Z directions 3D assets are called models

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Three-Dimensional Games Perspective Visual perspective Vanishing point

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Displaying 3D Objects Pixel shading Light from light source Results in light and dark areas on the model Vertex Point on a 3D object Faces are between verticesFaces Wireframe view shows hidden edges and verticesWireframe

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Displaying 3D Objects Models are composed of vertices, edges, and faces

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scaling 3D Objects Rendering Resizing Proportional (A) Nonproportional (B)

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Moving a 3D Object Resizes in line with visual perspective Distance between vertices is scaled Reading edge programmingReading edge Bounding box programmingBounding box

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Round Objects UV sphere U = X V = Y

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Round Objects Geodesic sphere Faces may be any regular polygon Icosphere most common type

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What Is a Mesh? Mesh is polygonal shapes (polys) “glued” togetherMesh Provides the shape for the object Texture External color or image on the object Tessellates over the meshTessellates Stretched on the surface of each poly

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What Is a Mesh? Texture is an image stretched over a mesh (Model courtesy of Autodesk)

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What Is a Mesh? Poly count Increased poly count = smoother Increased poly count = longer render time

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Basic Animation Stop-motion frame animation Flip book style Static animation No articulation Active animation Articulated movement

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Static Animation In static animation, the object retains its original posestatic animation

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Active Animation In active animation, objects change posesactive animation

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What are the three types of perspectives used in video games? First person, second person, and third person

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. List four elements found in a scene. Background, backdrop objects, active objects, and player character or avatar

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. How is mood conveyed through the use of color? Bright colors set a cheerful mood, while dark colors set a gloomy or scary mood.

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What happens to the resolution of an image as the image is scaled up? As the image is scaled up, the resolution decreases, which may result in the image becoming blurry.

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What two dimensions define a sprite and what three dimensions define a model? A sprite is defined by X and Y (or length and width) dimensions. A model is defined by X, Y, and Z (or length, width, and depth) dimensions.

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is the basic difference between a static animation and an active animation? In a static animation, the object’s original pose does not change, while in an active animation, the original pose changes.

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What is a pixel? A picture element, which is the smallest point or dot a computer screen can display.

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain dpi. Dots per inch; it is a measure of image resolution. The higher the dpi, the higher the resolution.

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. How do pixel and vertex shading create the illusion of depth? Pixel shading creates darker colors farther from the viewer and lighter colors closer to the viewer. Vertex shading moves vertices closer together in the distance and farther apart in the foreground.

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Active animation An object changes poses while moving on the screen. Active objects Objects in the game frame with which the player can interact; can be programmed. Backdrop objects Objects in a game frame that the player can touch or walk behind, but do not damage or reward the player. Background objects Objects in the game frame with which the player cannot interact.

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Bounding box Invisible cube inside of which a 3D object completely fits; used as a reference to rescale the 3D object. Camera Displays the visual play area of the game and follows the player wherever the character goes. Clarity How clearly images are displayed with either line or pixel density.

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Color palette Set of colors used throughout a scene to maintain mood and continuity. Dithering Computer process of scattering pixels of different colors to approximate a true color. Dots per inch (dpi) Number of pixels per square inch; the higher the dpi, the clearer the picture. Faces Flat surfaces on a 3D model.

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. First-person perspective Gameplay view where the players sees through the eyes of the character. Game frame All items programmed for a complete scene or level of a game. Hybrid Created by combining features from two different items.

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Interpolation When resizing an image, the computer makes a decision to create a blended-color pixel where original pixels are moved. Mesh A 3D shape created with interconnecting polygons stuck together along their edges. Native poles Original pixels of an object before it was resized.

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Pixels Picture elements; the smallest point or dot of color a computer screen can generate. Pixel shading Applying the principle of visual perspective such that as you move farther from the light source, things get darker. Pixilation Condition resulting in a blurry image; created by improper resizing.

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Reading edge Line between two vertices on a 3D object that is used as a reference to rescale the object. Rendering Adding color and shading to represent a solid object. Scrolling Game frame is moved so the player is always in the visible play area. Second-person perspective Player sees the game as if the player were an opponent or intermediary; rarely used in video games.

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Sprite character set Collection of poses for a single 2D asset. Static animation Object retains its original pose while moving. Tessellate Stretching of a color and texture map to apply a piece of the overall texture to each polygon of a 3D mesh. Third-person perspective Gameplay is viewed by a person who is not the player’s character or opponent, rather a neutral third person; spectator view.

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Vanishing point Point in the background where the edges of all assets will meet at a single point if extended; the faraway point where an object seems to disappear as it becomes smaller. Visible play area The part of the game frame that is displayed on the video screen. Visual perspective Sense of depth using shading and narrowing to represent the third dimension of depth on a two- dimensional screen.

72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Wireframe View showing objects as if they are built with wire with visible edges and invisible faces.


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