2Perspective, Scene Design, and Basic Animation 4Perspective, Scene Design, and Basic Animation
3Explain game perspectives Describe the elements of a scene.Identify elements used to convey mood and theme.Explain issues of clarity for scaled computer-generated images.Describe how to construct 3D models.Contrast static and active animation.
4Define terminology used in artistic creations and computer-generated images. Create artistic assets for a video game.Summarize how pixel and vertex shading are used to create the illusion of depth.
5Perspective How gameplay is displayed Position of player on screen First personSecond personThird person
6First-Person Perspective First-person perspective is seen through the eyes of the characterLike a head-mounted camera(www.freeonlinegames.com)
7Second-Person Perspective Second-person perspective is seen through the eyes of the opponentVery rarely used(www.kongregate.com)
8Second-Person Perspective In this game, the player is the batter and the computer is the pitcher
9Third-Person Perspective Third-person perspective is seen through the eyes of a spectatorOverheadBehindProfile or platform viewMany other viewing angles
10Third-Person Perspective These games have a classic platform view(www.kewlbox.com;
11Third-Person Perspective This game has an overhead view(www.freeonlinegames.com)
12Changeable Perspective “Switch view” button (player selects)Switch view due to game action (game determines); for example:Third person while runningFirst person while in targeting mode
13Changeable Perspective This game features a “switch view” button
14Scenes Placement of game objects Attractive layout Obstacles ObjectivesConveys storyConveys mood
15Object Placement Foreground Background Active objects Background objectsBackdrop objectsText objects or buttons
16Scene Feature Examine the objects in this scene. Identify and discuss the scene elements that do not match.Why do these elements not match?
17Design Objects Active objects Background objects Backdrop objects InteractiveCan moveBackground objectsNot interactive, like the skyBackdrop objectsScene elements, like platforms and wallsPlayer avatarThe character
18Design ObjectsNote the various types of objects in a game
19Mood Through color palette Through object shape Red = passion Yellow = cheerfulBlue = peacefulGray = gloomyThrough object shapeSharp edges = scarySoft edges = calming
20Theme Through traditional or historic objects Cultural themes Historic periodsMythologyReligionHolidays
21Mood and Theme Feature Examine both scenes Similar objects appear in bothHow does color palette set the mood in each?How is theme established by use of traditional objects in each?
22Scene Design Feature Consider the scene on the next slide: List five background objectsList one foreground objectList the active objects in the sceneWhat is the mood of the scene?How does color palette help set that mood?
24Storyboards A plan to tell the game story Sketch important frames Describe important action
25Image PropertiesDigital imagesMeasured in pixelsClarityResolution
26Clarity Pixel density Dots per inch (dpi) High resolution vs. low resolution
27Resizing and Resolution Enlarging low-resolution imagesPixilationBlurryInterpolationColor blendingNative polesDithering
28Resizing and Resolution The computer may blend colors when interpolating pixels
29Game Map Game map often is larger than screen size Map must scroll into the visible screenImages can blur if movement is too fastGame can lag if image resolution is too high
30Digital Color Model RGB Red, green, and blue Colors blended to create all other colors
31Digital Color ModelCreating an RGB color in Microsoft Office
32Digital Color Model HSL Hue, saturation, and luminescence The values for these properties create all colors
33Digital Color ModelCreating an HSL color in Microsoft Office
34Two-Dimensional Games Length and width only; no depthGame frameIncludes all items needed to complete a levelMay not be all visible to player at once
35Two-Dimensional Games Visible play areaPart of the game frame seen by the playerScrolling if needed2D assets are called spritesSprite character set (sprite sheet)Movement direction animationsStopped animation images
36Two-Dimensional Games A sprite character set from RPG Maker XP
37Two-Dimensional Games Game frame coordinatesCartesian coordinate system has +Y upThe Games Factory 2 has +Y down
38Two and One-Half–Dimensional Games Hybrid2D game map with 3D objects3D game map with 2D objectsIsometric board games
40Three-Dimensional Games Length, width, and depthCoordinates in X, Y, and Z directions3D assets are called models
41Three-Dimensional Games PerspectiveVisual perspectiveVanishing point
42Displaying 3D Objects Pixel shading Vertex Light from light source Results in light and dark areas on the modelVertexPoint on a 3D objectFaces are between verticesWireframe view shows hidden edges and vertices
43Displaying 3D ObjectsModels are composed of vertices, edges, and faces
44Scaling 3D Objects Rendering Resizing Proportional (A) Nonproportional (B)
45Moving a 3D Object Resizes in line with visual perspective Distance between vertices is scaledReading edge programmingBounding box programming
47Round Objects Geodesic sphere Faces may be any regular polygon Icosphere most common type
48What Is a Mesh? Mesh is polygonal shapes (polys) “glued” together Provides the shape for the objectTextureExternal color or image on the objectTessellates over the meshStretched on the surface of each poly
49What Is a Mesh? Texture is an image stretched over a mesh (Model courtesy of Autodesk)
50What Is a Mesh? Poly count Increased poly count = smoother Increased poly count = longer render time
51Basic Animation Stop-motion frame animation Static animation Flip book styleStatic animationNo articulationActive animationArticulated movement
52Static AnimationIn static animation, the object retains its original pose
53Active AnimationIn active animation, objects change poses
54What are the three types of perspectives used in video games? First person, second person, and third person
55List four elements found in a scene. Background, backdrop objects, active objects, and player character or avatar
56How is mood conveyed through the use of color? Bright colors set a cheerful mood, while dark colors set a gloomy or scary mood.
57What happens to the resolution of an image as the image is scaled up? As the image is scaled up, the resolution decreases, which may result in the image becoming blurry.
58What two dimensions define a sprite and what three dimensions define a model? A sprite is defined by X and Y (or length and width) dimensions. A model is defined by X, Y, and Z (or length, width, and depth) dimensions.
59What is the basic difference between a static animation and an active animation? In a static animation, the object’s original pose does not change, while in an active animation, the original pose changes.
60What is a pixel?A picture element, which is the smallest point or dot a computer screen can display.
61Explain dpi.Dots per inch; it is a measure of image resolution. The higher the dpi, the higher the resolution.
62How do pixel and vertex shading create the illusion of depth? Pixel shading creates darker colors farther from the viewer and lighter colors closer to the viewer. Vertex shading moves vertices closer together in the distance and farther apart in the foreground.
63Active animation Active objects Backdrop objects Background objects An object changes poses while moving on the screen.Active objectsObjects in the game frame with which the player can interact; can be programmed.Backdrop objectsObjects in a game frame that the player can touch or walk behind, but do not damage or reward the player.Background objectsObjects in the game frame with which the player cannot interact.
64Bounding box Camera Clarity Invisible cube inside of which a 3D object completely fits; used as a reference to rescale the 3D object.CameraDisplays the visual play area of the game and follows the player wherever the character goes.ClarityHow clearly images are displayed with either line or pixel density.
65Color palette Dithering Dots per inch (dpi) Faces Set of colors used throughout a scene to maintain mood and continuity.DitheringComputer process of scattering pixels of different colors to approximate a true color.Dots per inch (dpi)Number of pixels per square inch; the higher the dpi, the clearer the picture.FacesFlat surfaces on a 3D model.
66First-person perspective Gameplay view where the players sees through the eyes of the character.Game frameAll items programmed for a complete scene or level of a game.HybridCreated by combining features from two different items.
67Interpolation Mesh Native poles When resizing an image, the computer makes a decision to create a blended-color pixel where original pixels are moved.MeshA 3D shape created with interconnecting polygons stuck together along their edges.Native polesOriginal pixels of an object before it was resized.
68Pixels Pixel shading Pixilation Picture elements; the smallest point or dot of color a computer screen can generate.Pixel shadingApplying the principle of visual perspective such that as you move farther from the light source, things get darker.PixilationCondition resulting in a blurry image; created by improper resizing.
69Second-person perspective Reading edgeLine between two vertices on a 3D object that is used as a reference to rescale the object.RenderingAdding color and shading to represent a solid object.ScrollingGame frame is moved so the player is always in the visible play area.Second-person perspectivePlayer sees the game as if the player were an opponent or intermediary; rarely used in video games.
70Third-person perspective Sprite character setCollection of poses for a single 2D asset.Static animationObject retains its original pose while moving.TessellateStretching of a color and texture map to apply a piece of the overall texture to each polygon of a 3D mesh.Third-person perspectiveGameplay is viewed by a person who is not the player’s character or opponent, rather a neutral third person; spectator view.
71Vanishing point Visible play area Visual perspective Point in the background where the edges of all assets will meet at a single point if extended; the faraway point where an object seems to disappear as it becomes smaller.Visible play areaThe part of the game frame that is displayed on the video screen.Visual perspectiveSense of depth using shading and narrowing to represent the third dimension of depth on a two-dimensional screen.
72WireframeView showing objects as if they are built with wire with visible edges and invisible faces.