More Creative Accounting! Underestimate Nitrous Oxide Emissions Crutzen et al Rapeseed biodiesel = 1-1.7 times Ethanol from sugar beet leaves = 1.5-2.4 times Include Reduced Land-Use-Change for Co-Products!! Agricultural spraying. From Colorado State University Environmental Health Advanced Systems LaboratoryEnvironmental Health Advanced Systems Laboratory http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/e nvironment- book/groundwatercontamination.html
Air New Zealand, Boeing, Rolls Royce and UOP Over the Christmas Break Air New Zealand, Boeing, Rolls Royce and UOP conducted a test flight where one engine on a Boeing 747- 400 ran on a 50:50 blend of Jatropha and Jet Fuel.
Continental Airlines On 7th Jan 09 Continental Airlines did a test flight with a plane using, in one of the plane’s two engines, biofuel fuel derived from algae and jatropha plants JetBlue Airways is preparing for an Airbus A320- 200 trial by spring 2010. Feedstocks being considered for the trial include jatropha, algae, and waste forest residues.Airbus A320- 200 Most research into algae involves genetically engineering new species using synthetic biology
Military L-29 military aircraftL-29 military aircraft, Czechoslovakia Aero L-29 Delfín Military training 50% fuel for lower 48 US states from domestic ‘non oil sources’ by 2016
Alternatives to Kerosene 1. Fischer Tropsch gas & coal gasification > syngas > aviation fuel (2008, Sasoil had coal-to-liquids fuel certified for aviation) 2 Fischer Tropsch biomass gasification > syngas > aviation fuel 3 Now pyrolysis of biomass > bio-oil and syngas > (+ biochar/charcoal) > Fischer Tropsch > aviation fuel
Biofuels get Political Endorsement… Geoff Hoon “One of the big challenges that many of you are embracing is to make commercial aviation biofuels a reality within five years and a major fuel source by 2050.”
Hey Presto! Lord Turner said that biofuels could allow UK climate targets to be met even if aviation expansion, including a Heathrow Third Runway, went ahead. Job done!
Anti-Biofuel Protests… Anti-Agrofuels: concern for our future