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Safe Emergency Vehicle Driving Presentation Objectives Provide emergency vehicle drivers with the ability to safely and effectively operate fire apparatus.

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Presentation on theme: "Safe Emergency Vehicle Driving Presentation Objectives Provide emergency vehicle drivers with the ability to safely and effectively operate fire apparatus."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Safe Emergency Vehicle Driving Presentation Objectives Provide emergency vehicle drivers with the ability to safely and effectively operate fire apparatus under various emergency and non- emergency situations. Provide emergency vehicle drivers with the ability to safely and effectively operate fire apparatus under various emergency and non- emergency situations. Ensure that emergency vehicle drivers are fully competent with the handling of apparatus as well as possessing the skills necessary to operate under numerous fireground situations. Ensure that emergency vehicle drivers are fully competent with the handling of apparatus as well as possessing the skills necessary to operate under numerous fireground situations.

3 ANNUAL STATISTICS in the U.S ,819,000 Calls / 2,988,000 Fires / 896,500 False Alarms ,252,000 Calls / 1,451,500 Fires / 2,241,5000 False Alarms ,534,500 Calls / 1,348,500 Fires / 2,177,000 False Alarms ,205,000 Calls / 1,331,500 Fires / 2,187,000 False Alarms

4 ANNUAL STATISTICS in the U.S ,098,000 Calls / 1,389,500 Fires / 2,383,000 False Alarms ,854,000 Calls / 1,375,000 Fires / 2,238,000 False Alarms

5 LEGAL ASPECTS New York State Traffic Code New York State Traffic Code Local Speed Limits and/or Zones Local Speed Limits and/or Zones Departmental Operating Guidelines Departmental Operating Guidelines

6 New York State Traffic Code We are subject to all traffic codes unless an exemption applies We are subject to all traffic codes unless an exemption applies Exemptions only apply when operating on an emergency Exemptions only apply when operating on an emergency Regardless, you can still be held civilly or criminally liable for your actions if an accident occurs and property damage, injury, or loss of life results Regardless, you can still be held civilly or criminally liable for your actions if an accident occurs and property damage, injury, or loss of life results

7 New York State Traffic Code The State Traffic Code gives us many exemptions during an emergency response. No speed limits are imposed by the code so how do we determine our actions? The code does not relieve us of the duty to drive with “due regard” for the safety of all persons.

8 DUE REGARD Due regard is a reasonably careful person, performing similar duties under similar circumstances, that would act in the same manner as you.

9 The Driver Of An Authorized Emergency Vehicle May: Stop, stand or park irrespective of the provisions of this title. Stop, stand or park irrespective of the provisions of this title. Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but ONLY after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation. The NFPA states “YOU MUST STOP.” Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but ONLY after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation. The NFPA states “YOU MUST STOP.” Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as he/she does not endanger life or property. Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as he/she does not endanger life or property.

10 Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in a specified direction The Driver Of An Authorized Emergency Vehicle May:

11 The Driver Of An Authorized Emergency Vehicle Should: Always drive within your capabilities as an emergency vehicle operator while considering the limitations of the apparatus with due regard for the safety of others. Always drive within your capabilities as an emergency vehicle operator while considering the limitations of the apparatus with due regard for the safety of others. What constitutes due regard?

12 Due Regard Was enough notice of approach given before a collision was inevitable? Was enough notice of approach given before a collision was inevitable? Were all warning devices being used? Were all warning devices being used? Were they used correctly? Were they used correctly? Could everyone see and hear you? Could everyone see and hear you? Did you exercise the required caution? Did you exercise the required caution?

13 DAILY POST DAILY POST FAMILY OF THREE FATALLY INJURED IN AN ACCIDENT INVOLVING FIRE DEPARTMENT APPARATUS POLICE STATE THAT CHARGES ARE PENDING AGAINST THE DRIVER OF THE FIRE TRUCK.

14 Bad Things Can Happen To Good People

15 All It Takes Is A Split Second Of Bad Judgment

16 Don’t Be Another Statistic

17 Law of Inerta

18 The larger the vehicle you are driving the more DAMAGE you can inflict.

19 2012 Statistics 81 firefighters died while on-duty 80 male and 1 female. 81 firefighters died while on-duty 80 male and 1 female. 45 firefighters died as a result of stress or overexertion 45 firefighters died as a result of stress or overexertion 15 firefighters were killed during activities involving brush, grass or wildland firefighting 15 firefighters were killed during activities involving brush, grass or wildland firefighting 1 firefighter was killed when he became caught or trapped 1 firefighter was killed when he became caught or trapped 4 firefighters died as a result of structural collapses 4 firefighters died as a result of structural collapses

20 2012 Statistics 17 firefighters died while responding to or returning from incidents. 17 firefighters died while responding to or returning from incidents. 18 firefighters died as the result of 14 vehicle crashes, six involving POVs, six involving apparatus, and six from two separate incidents involving aircraft. 18 firefighters died as the result of 14 vehicle crashes, six involving POVs, six involving apparatus, and six from two separate incidents involving aircraft. Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, are occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year Firetruck crashes, are occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year

21 Legal Aspects If you are involved in an accident and charges are brought against you, will you be given legal representation by your department?

22 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) All Department vehicles and apparatus shall be operated with consideration for traffic conditions, weather, and type of thoroughfare or roadway, and all other existing conditions that may affect safe vehicle operations. Vehicle speed shall be dependent upon these factors as well as the limitations of the apparatus and abilities of the operator with due regard for safety as the top priority.

23 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) When responding to an emergency, the following conditions should apply: The driver/operator should use both audible and visual emergency warning devices, including lights and sirens. The driver/operator should use both audible and visual emergency warning devices, including lights and sirens. The vehicle/apparatus should be brought to a complete stop at all red traffic lights and stop signs. The vehicle/apparatus should be brought to a complete stop at all red traffic lights and stop signs.

24 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) The posted speed limit should try to be observed when entering an intersection with a green light visible. The posted speed limit should try to be observed when entering an intersection with a green light visible. The vehicle should slow to a slower reasonable speed when entering an intersection controlled by a yield right-of-way sign only. The vehicle should slow to a slower reasonable speed when entering an intersection controlled by a yield right-of-way sign only.

25 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) The operator should not proceed through an intersection until he/she has looked in all directions and determined that it is safe to proceed. While proceeding through the intersection, both the operator and the officer (where applicable) shall be on the alert for approaching or turning vehicles, other emergency vehicles, pedestrians, and any other hazard that could compromise safety. The operator should not proceed through an intersection until he/she has looked in all directions and determined that it is safe to proceed. While proceeding through the intersection, both the operator and the officer (where applicable) shall be on the alert for approaching or turning vehicles, other emergency vehicles, pedestrians, and any other hazard that could compromise safety.

26 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) The vehicle in most cases should be brought to a complete stop at all intersections that are visibly obstructed in any manner – i.e. buildings, other vehicles, trees, or shrubbery, etc. The vehicle in most cases should be brought to a complete stop at all intersections that are visibly obstructed in any manner – i.e. buildings, other vehicles, trees, or shrubbery, etc. Overtaking another vehicle moving in the same direction should be done with extreme caution. This should be accomplished by passing the upcoming vehicle on the left whenever possible. Overtaking another vehicle moving in the same direction should be done with extreme caution. This should be accomplished by passing the upcoming vehicle on the left whenever possible.

27 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) Extreme caution must be exercised when traveling in the opposite traffic flow lanes. Extreme caution must be exercised when traveling in the opposite traffic flow lanes. The vehicle in most cases should be brought to a complete stop at all unguarded railroad crossings to ensure a safe crossing can be made. The operator should obey crossing signals at all times and the vehicle should not be driven around crossing gates under any circumstances. The vehicle in most cases should be brought to a complete stop at all unguarded railroad crossings to ensure a safe crossing can be made. The operator should obey crossing signals at all times and the vehicle should not be driven around crossing gates under any circumstances.

28 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) The posted, reduced speed limits for school zones should be observed during hours of operation. The posted, reduced speed limits for school zones should be observed during hours of operation. Operators will bring the vehicle to a complete stop whenever encountering a stopped school bus with flashing warning lights and will not proceed until it is confirmed by the bus driver that it is safe to do so. This is a New York State Law Operators will bring the vehicle to a complete stop whenever encountering a stopped school bus with flashing warning lights and will not proceed until it is confirmed by the bus driver that it is safe to do so. This is a New York State Law

29 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) …. it will be considered safe to proceed once the bus driver has ceased operating the flashing lights. A distance of feet should be maintained between emergency vehicles if responding together along the same route. In congested areas or when encountering heavy traffic, this minimum distance may be impossible to maintain. A distance of feet should be maintained between emergency vehicles if responding together along the same route. In congested areas or when encountering heavy traffic, this minimum distance may be impossible to maintain.

30 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) …Always maintain adequate distance to avoid rear-end collisions. Always maintain an operating space in front of the vehicle that is at least equal to the minimum travel distance necessary to stop the vehicle without contacting another object. Always maintain an operating space in front of the vehicle that is at least equal to the minimum travel distance necessary to stop the vehicle without contacting another object.

31 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) The vehicle/apparatus should try to follow the safest most expeditious route whenever possible. The vehicle/apparatus should try to follow the safest most expeditious route whenever possible. Also, it is important to be aware that unnecessary travel through congested or heavily populated areas, such as subdivisions, should be avoided whenever possible. Also, it is important to be aware that unnecessary travel through congested or heavily populated areas, such as subdivisions, should be avoided whenever possible.

32 Vehicle Operations SOPs Emergency Response (Example) The location and response route of emergency vehicles should be updated by those vehicles via radio communications any time there is a possibility that emergency vehicles routes could intersect during an emergency response. The location and response route of emergency vehicles should be updated by those vehicles via radio communications any time there is a possibility that emergency vehicles routes could intersect during an emergency response. The proceeding guidelines, along with adequate training and experience of the vehicle operator, should help to ensure a safe response to the scene of any emergency. The proceeding guidelines, along with adequate training and experience of the vehicle operator, should help to ensure a safe response to the scene of any emergency.

33 DEFENSIVE DRIVING Defensive driving means doing everything reasonably possible to avoid being involved in a preventable accident, regardless of what the law is, what the other driver does, or adverse weather conditions. A preventable accident is one in which the driver fails to take reasonable precautions and/or evasive actions to avoid the accident.

34 DEFENSIVE DRIVING Defensive driving requires continual exercise of good judgment and good driving habits with an awareness that all drivers cannot be relied upon to drive properly and safely.

35 ELEMENTS OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING KNOWLEDGE - The operator must know the rules of the road, be aware of the proper procedures for passing, yielding the right-of- way, and other maneuvers. In addition, they must know their own limitations, the vehicle’s limitations, and limitations imposed by the environment such as traffic and weather conditions.

36 ELEMENTS OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING ALERTNESS – The emergency vehicle operator must develop his/her powers of observation to be fully aware of what is happening. The driver must be alert to potential hazards, and to changing weather and driving conditions.

37 ELEMENTS OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING VISION – A driver should “aim high” by raising his/her field of vision to at least one- quarter mile ahead to observe potential hazards. As speed increases, visual acuity, peripheral vision, and depth perception all deteriorate. JUDGMENT – The emergency vehicle operator must know what to do and when to do it……every time!!!!

38 ELEMENTS OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING STAY CALM – It is critically important that the emergency vehicle operator remain calm and drive in a safe manner. Reckless driving, even in response to an emergency, is never acceptable. The driver who drives in an aggressive manner, failing to observe safety precautions, is a menace to other vehicles, pedestrians, and other firefighters in the vehicle.

39 ELEMENTS OF DEFENSIVE DRIVING SKILL – The emergency vehicle operator must have a good basic knowledge of how to handle the vehicle. Skill is the result of proper training plus practice. Remember – if you do not practice good diving skills, you may not be around long enough to become a veteran.

40 Defensive Driving Techniques Anticipating Other Driver’s Reactions Always anticipate what other drivers will do but never assume they will react in the appropriate manner. Just the sound of a siren may cause some people to panic and pull into your path or stop in front of you. Always negotiate intersections in a very cautious manner.

41 Light & Sirens Just because you know all your lights are on and the sirens are in use, do not assume everyone can see and hear you. Many accidents have been caused by over-reliance on warning devices. Expect the unexpected!!!!

42 Defensive Driving Control Factors Visually aim high – Find a safe path well ahead of you. The faster you are going, the further ahead you MUST look down the roadway. Too many vehicle operators drive by only observing a few hundred feet ahead of the apparatus. Visually aim high – Find a safe path well ahead of you. The faster you are going, the further ahead you MUST look down the roadway. Too many vehicle operators drive by only observing a few hundred feet ahead of the apparatus.

43 Defensive Driving Control Factors Get the big picture / Stay back and see it all – Our traffic congestion gets worse almost every day. Never push your position by forgetting to adjust your speed based upon traffic and weather conditions. Anticipate stops and turns by analyzing traffic conditions well ahead of you. Get the big picture / Stay back and see it all – Our traffic congestion gets worse almost every day. Never push your position by forgetting to adjust your speed based upon traffic and weather conditions. Anticipate stops and turns by analyzing traffic conditions well ahead of you.

44 Defensive Driving Control Factors Keep your eyes moving – Always scan your mirrors and observe what is going on all around your apparatus. Focusing only on the area in front of the apparatus could be a very deadly mistake. Keep your eyes moving – Always scan your mirrors and observe what is going on all around your apparatus. Focusing only on the area in front of the apparatus could be a very deadly mistake.

45 Defensive Driving Control Factors Leave your self a way “out” – By always being prepared for the unexpected, there is less of a chance the need will arise for a last resort maneuver such as evasive steering or emergency braking. Either can make for a VERY bad day. Leave your self a way “out” – By always being prepared for the unexpected, there is less of a chance the need will arise for a last resort maneuver such as evasive steering or emergency braking. Either can make for a VERY bad day.

46 Defensive Driving Control Factors Make sure others can see and hear you – Use ALL your warning devices. They have been placed on the apparatus for a purpose. A siren will do you no good if it isn’t used properly. Make sure others can see and hear you – Use ALL your warning devices. They have been placed on the apparatus for a purpose. A siren will do you no good if it isn’t used properly.

47 Braking and Reaction Time/Distance The average reaction time for an unimpaired driver is approximately ¾ of a second. At 45 miles per hour, you would travel an additional 50 feet before the braking maneuver begins. At 60 miles per hour, this distance increases to 66 feet. Remember, this distance is traveled before your foot can move to the brake pedal.

48 Braking and Reaction Time/Distance Once the brakes have been applied at 45 miles per hour, it takes another 210 feet to stop, making the total stopping distance at 45 miles per hour 260 feet. At 60 miles per hour, the braking distance is increased to 370 feet and the total stopping distance is 436 feet.

49 Several Factors Affect Your Ability To Stop Weight of the vehicle – know your apparatus Condition of the roadway – Is it wet, dry, smooth surface or rough surface? Condition of the tires – A thorough daily checkout could detect safety defects. Condition of the braking system – If the vehicle does not stop properly, it should be out-of- service. Speed being traveled – Does faster really pay off?

50 What Causes Skids?  Failure to properly appreciate shifting weights of heavy apparatus  Improper use of auxiliary braking devices  Driving too fast for road conditions  Failure to anticipate obstacles  Improper maintenance of tires and tire pressure

51 Controlling A Skid Should you find yourself going into a skid, let off the accelerator, do not apply the brakes, slightly turn into the direction of the skid and then lightly apply the brakes. A hard braking maneuver during a skid will do nothing but make the skid worse and harder to overcome.

52 Braking – ABS braking Systems Antilock braking systems make all vehicles safer and easier to stop. During braking applying a firm, steady pressure on the brake pedal allowing the on-board ABS computer to sense a locked wheel within milliseconds. NEVER pump ABS brakes.

53 Braking – Non-ABS Braking Systems Some older apparatus are not equipped with ABS, therefore, should a wheel lock-up without ABS brakes, release the brakes allowing the wheels to again turn causing rolling friction. Then apply threshold braking until the vehicle is brought under control.

54 Brake Fade AAAAll our apparatus older than 1997 have disc brakes. Brake fade is less likely on this type of braking system. All apparatus 1997 and newer have drum brakes. Brake fade is more likely with drum brakes because more of the braking surface (90%) is used and as a result, brake surfaces get hotter much faster.

55 During brake fade the brake drum will overheat and expand. When this happens less of the drum area is in contact with the brake shoes. Each repeated stopping distance will increase – sometimes dramatically. By anticipating stops well ahead of time, we can help eliminate heavy stopping maneuvers and brake fade. Brake fade at best is scary, at worst it is deadly.

56 MOMENTUM AND INERTIA Momentum is the speed of a vehicle’s mass X its velocity. Momentum is the actions of a moving vehicle. Momentum is the speed of a vehicle’s mass X its velocity. Momentum is the actions of a moving vehicle. Inertia is the force that makes a moving vehicle tend to stay in motion in the same direction. As momentum increases, it is more difficult to overcome the effects of inertia. Inertia is the force that makes a moving vehicle tend to stay in motion in the same direction. As momentum increases, it is more difficult to overcome the effects of inertia.

57 CENTRIFUGAL FORCE Centrifugal force is the force that tends to push a vehicle traveling around a curve away from the center of the turning radius. Centrifugal force is influenced by both speed and the radius of the curve. The higher the speed, the greater the centrifugal force. The tighter the curve, the greater the centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is the force that tends to push a vehicle traveling around a curve away from the center of the turning radius. Centrifugal force is influenced by both speed and the radius of the curve. The higher the speed, the greater the centrifugal force. The tighter the curve, the greater the centrifugal force.

58 WEIGHT TRANSFER Weight transfer is the shifting of the vehicle’s weight every time a vehicle accelerates, decelerates, or changes directions. When a vehicle “leans” while going through a curve, inertia and centrifugal force are both at work causing vehicle weight transfer. Weight transfer is the shifting of the vehicle’s weight every time a vehicle accelerates, decelerates, or changes directions. When a vehicle “leans” while going through a curve, inertia and centrifugal force are both at work causing vehicle weight transfer.

59 NIGHT VISION Night vision can vary greatly from person to person. Night vision can vary greatly from person to person. Less light at night obviously makes good vision more difficult. Less light at night obviously makes good vision more difficult. Flashes of bright light can diminish night vision. Flashes of bright light can diminish night vision. Dirty windshields and mirrors will lower night vision even more. Dirty windshields and mirrors will lower night vision even more.

60 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS Approximately six times more people are killed on wet roads than on snow or ice covered roads combined. Approximately six times more people are killed on wet roads than on snow or ice covered roads combined. The first 30 minutes after rain begins is the most hazardous time to be driving on wet roadways. The first 30 minutes after rain begins is the most hazardous time to be driving on wet roadways. Avoid sudden moves with the steering wheel, brakes, and accelerator. Avoid sudden moves with the steering wheel, brakes, and accelerator. In extremely heavy rainfall, occasionally tap the brakes to make sure they are not grabbing or pulling. In extremely heavy rainfall, occasionally tap the brakes to make sure they are not grabbing or pulling.

61 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS Make sure tires are inflated properly. Make sure tires are inflated properly. Keep the windshield clear at all times. Keep the windshield clear at all times. Verify that all traction devices are functioning properly. Verify that all traction devices are functioning properly. Be aware of temperature decreases to lessen the unexpected encountering of “black ice.” Be aware of temperature decreases to lessen the unexpected encountering of “black ice.” Leave extra stopping distances. Leave extra stopping distances.

62 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS Always drive with low beams on during adverse weather. Always drive with low beams on during adverse weather. It takes 3 – 15 times farther to stop on snow and ice than on dry pavement. It takes 3 – 15 times farther to stop on snow and ice than on dry pavement. Slow down and drive cautiously!!! Slow down and drive cautiously!!!

63 EVASIVE STEERING Evasive steering means a sudden or extreme change in the vehicle’s direction. If this maneuver is required, consider the following: Can the vehicle be safely steered off the right or left side of the roadway? Can the vehicle be safely steered off the right or left side of the roadway? Are there any obstacles on the roadway? Are there any obstacles on the roadway? Are there any oncoming vehicles? Are there any oncoming vehicles?

64 EVASIVE STEERING How stable is the road surface and is it likely to contribute to loss of control? How stable is the road surface and is it likely to contribute to loss of control? By utilizing one of the basics of defensive driving – looking well ahead – this critical maneuver can be made easier and safer or avoided altogether. By utilizing one of the basics of defensive driving – looking well ahead – this critical maneuver can be made easier and safer or avoided altogether.

65 AUXILIARY BRAKING DEVICES NFPA 1901 requires that all fire apparatus with a GVWR above 36,000 lbs. be equipped with an approved auxiliary braking device. All our fire apparatus 2001 and newer also have this device interfaced with the transmission. This causes a downward shift in the transmission when the device activates.

66 JACOBS BRAKE The jake brake is a device that is mounted on the overhead of the engine and basically turns the action of the exhaust valves into a giant compressor. The jake brake is a device that is mounted on the overhead of the engine and basically turns the action of the exhaust valves into a giant compressor. The higher the horsepower and rpm the greater the effect of the jake brake. The higher the horsepower and rpm the greater the effect of the jake brake.

67 JACOBS BRAKE It is hydraulically operated with essentially no moving parts. It is hydraulically operated with essentially no moving parts. It is very ineffective on trucks when it does not downshift the transmission. It is very ineffective on trucks when it does not downshift the transmission. Average cost installed - $3,000 - $5,000. Average cost installed - $3,000 - $5,000.

68 TRANSMISSION RETARDER This device is an integral part of the transmission. This device is an integral part of the transmission. It is an output retarder and is mounted on the rear of the transmission and is silent in operation. It is an output retarder and is mounted on the rear of the transmission and is silent in operation. Retarder chamber fills with hydraulic fluid when activated. Retarder chamber fills with hydraulic fluid when activated.

69 TRANSMISSION RETARDER 50% activation is achieved when the foot is removed from the accelerator. The remaining 50% is achieved when the brake is applied. 50% activation is achieved when the foot is removed from the accelerator. The remaining 50% is achieved when the brake is applied. Can cause extreme transmission overheating. Can cause extreme transmission overheating. Price installed is $5,000 - $7,000. Price installed is $5,000 - $7,000.

70 ELECTROMAGNETIC RETARDER (TELMA) Installed directly on the driveline behind the transmission. Installed directly on the driveline behind the transmission. Uses electromagnetic current to slow the driveline and is silent in operation. Uses electromagnetic current to slow the driveline and is silent in operation. Initially activates when the foot is removed from the accelerator. Initially activates when the foot is removed from the accelerator. Initial activation is 25%. Initial activation is 25%.

71 ELECTROMAGNETIC RETARDER (TELMA) Activation is dependent upon brake pedal pressure. The harder the pedal is depressed, the greater the stopping power. Activation is dependent upon brake pedal pressure. The harder the pedal is depressed, the greater the stopping power. Cost installed is $10,000 - $14,000. Cost installed is $10,000 - $14,000.

72 AUXILIARY BRAKING DEVICES Cost of Life: Priceless ALL auxiliary braking devices must be turned off when traveling on wet or slick roadways.

73 Always Remember ****Expect the Unexpected*** Be Safe Ted R. Kolb


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