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Chemical weapon of mass destruction: Sarin Gas

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1 Chemical weapon of mass destruction: Sarin Gas
CBE 555 Wilibrordus Armand Amadeus

2 What is chemical weapon?
A device that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings Can be widely dispersed in gas, liquid and solid forms About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century

3 Brief history of chemical warfare: Ancient times
600 B.C. Athenians poisoned the wells of the Spartans Spartans tried lobbing burning sulfur pitch over the walls of Athens, hoping to fill the city with toxic smoke 400 B.C. The "Laws of Manu," a Hindu treatise on statecraft advises poisoning food and water. The manual contains hundreds of recipes for creating poison weapons, toxic smokes, and other chemical weapons. A.D. 1200: Genghis Khan catapulted burning sulfur pitch on fortified cities

4 Brief history of chemical warfare: Medieval times
15th century Leonardo da Vinci proposed a powder of sulfide of arsenic and verdigris Inhaler will asphyxiated 1672 Explosive and combustible device are used to produce toxic fumes in the Siege of Groningen 1854 Lyon Playfair proposed a cacodyl cyanide artillery shell Poisonous vapor which would kill men without suffering 

5 Brief history of chemical warfare: World War times
World War I 124,000 tons of gas were produced: 85,000 fatalities + 1,176,500 non-fatal casualties French use tear gases: ethyl bromoacetate and chloroacetone Germany use pulmonary agents: chlorine, phosgene, mustard gas

6 Brief history of chemical warfare: World War times
World War II Use of blister agents in China by Japanese Army Germany decided not to use nerve agent fearing retaliation by Allies

7 Chemical weapon technology timeline: 20th Century
Agents Dissemination Protection Detection 1914 Chlorine Chloropicrin Phosgene Mustard gas Wind dispersal Gas masks, urinated-on gauze Smell 1918 Lewisite Chemical shells Gas mask Rosin oil clothing smell of geraniums 1920s Projectiles w/ central bursters CC-2 clothing 1930s G-series nerve agents Aircraft bombs Blister agent detectors Color change paper 1940s Missile warheads Spray tanks Protective ointment (mustard) Collective protection Gas mask w/ Whetlerite 1950s 1960s V-series nerve agents Aerodynamic Gas mask w/ water supply Nerve gas alarm 1970s 1980s Binary munitions Improved gas masks (protection, fit, comfort) Laser detection 1990s Novichok nerve agents

8 Types of chemical weapon
Harassing Agents Incapacitating Agents Lethal Agents

9 Harassing agents Not intended to kill or injure
Used as Riot Control Agents 3 Categories: Tear agents: produced immediate pain to eyes Ex. Bromoacetone, Capsaicin, Xylyl bromide Vomiting agents: produced congestion, coughing, sneezing Ex. Adamsite, Diphenylchloroarsine Malodorants: produced strong and unpleasant smell Ex. Skunk weapon

10 Incapacitating agents
Non-lethal agents Limited probability of permanent injury or loss of life Cause mental disturbance: delirium or hallucination Ex. 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ), Phencyclidine (SN), Lysergic acid diethylamide (K)

11 Lethal agents Cause injuries that require medical treatment
4 Categories: Blister agents: cause injury to the skin Ex. Vesicants, Nitrogen mustards, Arsenicals Blood agents: interfere with blood process Ex. Cyanogen Chloride, Hydrogen Cyanide, Arsine Choking Agents (pulmonary agents): cause asphyxiation Ex. Chlorine, Chloropicrin, Diphosgene, Phosgene Nerve agents

12 Nerve Agents Effects: 4 Categories:
Disrupt chemical communication through nervous system Blocking acetyl cholinesterase; stops neurotransmitter Exhaustion of muscles leads to respiratory failure 4 Categories: G series: high volatility; non-persistent to semi-persistent effect Ex. Tabun, Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin GV series: medium volatility, semi-persistent to persistent effect V series: medium volatility, semi-persistent to persistent effect T series: Related to puffer fish Tetrodoxing G series[edit] These are high volatility nerve agents that are typically used for a nonpersistent to semipersistent effect. Tabun (GA) Sarin (GB) Soman (GD) Cyclosarin (GF) GV series[edit] These agents have a volatility between the V and G agents and are typically used for a semi-persistent to persistent effect. Novichok agents GV (nerve agent) V series[edit] These agents have low volatility and are typically used for a persistent effect or liquid contact hazard. VE VG VM VX T series[edit] These agents are related to the puffer fish Tetrodotoxin Saxitoxin (TZ)

13 Sarin Gas Organophosphorous compound: [(CH3)2CHO]CH3P(O)F
Discovered in 1938 in Germany by scientists attempting to create stronger pesticides Colorless, odorless liquid Very lethal: 26 times more deadly than cyanide SLUDGE syndrome: Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastrointestinal distress, and Emesis Suffocation from lung muscle paralysis Death within 1 minute after ingestion

14 Sarin Gas 08/sarin.jpeg c-sarin-chemical-warfare-nerve-agent/

15 Sarin gas in Syria Ghouta chemical attack occurred on 21 August 2013 during the Syrian civil war District around Damascus, Syria, were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent Sarin Estimates of the death toll around 1,729 fatalities The UN has confirmed "unequivocally and objectively" that chemical weapons have been used in Syria UN did not determine who is the perpetrators of the attack

16 Discussion Lyon Playfair response to justify chemical warfare:
“There was no sense in this objection. It is considered a legitimate mode of warfare to fill shells with molten metal which scatters among the enemy, and produced the most frightful modes of death. Why a poisonous vapor which would kill men without suffering is to be considered illegitimate warfare is incomprehensible. War is destruction, and the more destructive it can be made with the least suffering the sooner will be ended that barbarous method of protecting national rights. No doubt in time chemistry will be used to lessen the suffering of combatants, and even of criminals condemned to death.” What do you think with this statement? Any possible development of new chemical weapon in the future?

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