2Introduction Purpose of NBC Defence Introduction to NBC Warfare Local AlarmsWarning SignalsSurvival RuleImmediate Actions
3IntroductionThe strategic priority of DND is to maintain a multi-purpose, combat capable force to meet the objectives the Government set out in the 1994 Defence White Paper. Thus the CF will need to be able to operate with modern armed forces against a capable opponent.Given the world-wide proliferation and subsequent availability of NBC weapons to a capable opponent, the CF shall be prepared to survive and be confident of continuing combat operations in an NBC environment.
4IntroductionIn certain circumstances such as Cyprus and Vietnam, chemical agents and defoliants were used and there has since been confirmation of the use of chemical agents by countries such as Iraq and Iran in more recent conflicts.We have only to look at current events to realize today’s very real NBC threat to our soldiers in the field.Even though Canadian Government policy does not allow Canada to initiate NBC warfare, it is essential that all our personnel be able to recognize the threat, so they can protect themselves against such attacks and maintain combat effectiveness
5Canadian Forces Policy for NBCD Defence Biological WeaponsCanada does not possess any biological or toxin-based weapons, and will not develop, produce, acquire, stockpile, or use such weapons.Chemical WeaponsCanada does not possess any chemical weapons other than the devices used for crowd and riot control. Canada has renounced both the use of chemical weapons in war and the right to develop, produce, acquire, or stockpile such weapons for use in warfare, unless these weapons are used against the military forces or the civilian population of Canada or it’s allies.
6Standardized warning systems have been established to warn troops who are potential targets. Details of these warning devices and the actions to be taken are normally given in Unit Standard Operating Procedures and/or Unit Standing OrdersThreats of attackWhen there is a threat of an attack, units are responsible for warning their personnel. The unit will give the local alarm.
7General Indicators of a Biological or Chemical Attack Suspicious liquids or solids on the ground or on vegetationUnexplained smoke or mistDead or sick animals or birdsSuspicious odors
8Chemical Agent Indicators Irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and skinHeadache, dizziness and nauseaDifficulty with, or increased rate of breathingA feeling of choking or tightness in the throat or chestStrange or out of the ordinary ordersStrange flavours in food or water
9Biological Agent Detection An increase in sick or dead animalsUnusual or unexplained increase in the number of insectsEnemy fire that does not seem to have an immediate casualty effect
10Chemical Agent Characteristics SymptomsTreatmentNerve GasBreathing difficulties, tightness in chest, nausea, excessive sweating, vomiting, cramps, headache coma, convulsions, droolingAdminister atrophineBlister agents, Mustard and Arsenical agentsEyes enflamed, burning, blisters and tissue destructionApply protective Ointment to exposed areasChoking AgentDifficulty in breathing, tightness in chestLoosen clothing, avoid unnecessary exertion and keep warmBlood agents, Cyanide, arsine gasesBreathing difficulties, tightness in chestAdminister Amyl Nitrate and artificial respirationEar AgentsEyes water, intense eye pain, irritation of upper respiratory tractAir skin, flush irritated surfaces with waterVomiting agentsSneezing, nausea, salivation, vomitingVigorous activity helps reduce nausea and it’s durationIncapacitatingAbnormal behaviour, muscle weakness, central nervous system disordersSupport first aid and physical restraints in some cases.
11Survival Rules A.R.O.U.S.E. Artillery or other enemy bombardment Raids or other hostile acts by enemy aircraft against your unitOdours, liquids or solids which are suspicious are detectedUnusual bomblets or missiles are seenSmoke or mist from an unknown sourceEffects on your body, on others or on animals or plants are noticed