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WARFARE AGENTS Anusha Dhammi Weerasooriya Research Officer National Poisons & Drug Information Centre.

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Presentation on theme: "WARFARE AGENTS Anusha Dhammi Weerasooriya Research Officer National Poisons & Drug Information Centre."— Presentation transcript:

1 WARFARE AGENTS Anusha Dhammi Weerasooriya Research Officer National Poisons & Drug Information Centre

2 Warfare Agents Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) Biological Weapons (BW) Agents that choking or Agents that choking or that irritate the lungs that irritate the lungs Blood agents Blood agents Blistering agents Blistering agents Nerve agents Nerve agents

3 History 1915 –CW occurred during World War 1-German forces released 160 tons of cl 2 gas-killed 5000 soldiers –CW occurred during World War 1-German forces released 160 tons of cl 2 gas-killed 5000 soldiers WW1 Ger & british forces used tons of cl 2,mustard gas, phosphene-killed million pe: WW1 Ger & british forces used tons of cl 2,mustard gas, phosphene-killed million pe: Geneva protocol banned using of CW and BW – initially signed by 38 nations.Now over130 nations Geneva protocol banned using of CW and BW – initially signed by 38 nations.Now over130 nations WW11 didn’t use BW or CW But Germans developed CW nerve agents Sarin,Tabun,Soman WW11 didn’t use BW or CW But Germans developed CW nerve agents Sarin,Tabun,Soman During Vietnam War U.S. used defoliants During Vietnam War U.S. used defoliants 1995 –Sarin gas released into the Tokyo subway system,killed 12 people & injured over 5500 people in 16 stations –Sarin gas released into the Tokyo subway system,killed 12 people & injured over 5500 people in 16 stations.

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5 Definition Any chemical which through its chemical effect on living process may cause death, temporary loss of performance or permanent injury to people and animals. Any chemical which through its chemical effect on living process may cause death, temporary loss of performance or permanent injury to people and animals. CW Agents are Highly toxic Highly toxic Not too difficult to handle Not too difficult to handle capable of being stored after long periods in containers without degradation & corroding capable of being stored after long periods in containers without degradation & corroding Resistant to atmospheric water & oxygen Resistant to atmospheric water & oxygen With stand the heat developed when dispersed With stand the heat developed when dispersed

6 Chemical warfare agents Highly toxic Highly toxic Not too difficult to handle Not too difficult to handle Capable of being stored after long periods in containers without degradation & corroding Capable of being stored after long periods in containers without degradation & corroding Resistant to atmospheric water & oxygen Resistant to atmospheric water & oxygen Withstand the heat developed when dispersed with an explosive device Withstand the heat developed when dispersed with an explosive device

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9 Chlorine and Phosgene These can be gaseous or liquid forms These can be gaseous or liquid forms Phosgene known as a carbonyl chloride Phosgene known as a carbonyl chloride Lethal type of choking and irritant agents Lethal type of choking and irritant agents Can act as aerosols and penetrate the body through the Respiratory system Can act as aerosols and penetrate the body through the Respiratory system

10 Chlorine and Phosgene Symptoms Phosgene: * Irritation Effects. * Irritation Effects. * Corrosive effects to the eyes(blurred * Corrosive effects to the eyes(blurred vision),skin and respiratory tract vision),skin and respiratory tract * Long term:- Lung fibrosis of the lungs * Long term:- Lung fibrosis of the lungs causing impaired lung functions causing impaired lung functions Chlorine: Quickly burns tissues of the nose, mouth and lungs mouth and lungs

11 Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide salts (Blood Agent) Highly poisonous & sufficient concentrations, rapidly leads to death. Highly poisonous & sufficient concentrations, rapidly leads to death. Concentration(mg/m3)Effect 300 Immediately lethal 200 Le: after 10 minutes 150 Le: after 30 min fatal min min-1 hr without effect light sym:after several hrs.

12 Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide salts (Blood Agent) contd… Colourless liquid, solid and gaseous forms avail: Colourless liquid, solid and gaseous forms avail: Can wear a protective mask to reduce the threat poorly bound to Active carbon. Can wear a protective mask to reduce the threat poorly bound to Active carbon. Difficult to use out doors due to high volatility Difficult to use out doors due to high volatility Suddenly enters the blood stream and inhibit the cytochrome-oxydase Suddenly enters the blood stream and inhibit the cytochrome-oxydase Reduce the energy(ATP) and reduce the cell respiration finally cell death and patient dies. Reduce the energy(ATP) and reduce the cell respiration finally cell death and patient dies. (eg:HCN,Cyanogen Chloride) (eg:HCN,Cyanogen Chloride)

13 Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide salts (Blood Agent) Symptoms Restlessness, giddiness, res: difficulty, unconsciousness Restlessness, giddiness, res: difficulty, unconsciousness Extremely high concentrations, no times for symptoms to develop, sudden collapse and death. Extremely high concentrations, no times for symptoms to develop, sudden collapse and death. Antidote: Dicobolt editate and hydroxocobalamin Antidote: Dicobolt editate and hydroxocobalamin

14 Arsines/CO(Blood Agent) Aliphatic arsenic compounds are called Lewisite Aliphatic arsenic compounds are called Lewisite Highly volatile colourless liquid Highly volatile colourless liquid Injuries are similar to mustard agents but not delayed. Injuries are similar to mustard agents but not delayed. Destroy the ability of the Hb component of the Blood to bind Oxygen Destroy the ability of the Hb component of the Blood to bind Oxygen

15 Arsines/CO(Blood Agent) Symptoms nasal and throat irritation nasal and throat irritation Other symptoms are same as mustard Other symptoms are same as mustard Antidote: Dimercaptopropanol Antidote: Dimercaptopropanol

16 Mustard Agents (Blistering Agent) Eg: 2-Chloroethyl sulphide Eg: 2-Chloroethyl sulphide Can release from a baloon or aeroplane Can release from a baloon or aeroplane Colourless heavy oily liquid and almost odourless Colourless heavy oily liquid and almost odourless Symptoms donot occur until 2-24hrs after exposure Symptoms donot occur until 2-24hrs after exposure Sp: attacks the blood generating organs. Sp: attacks the blood generating organs. No Antidotes No Antidotes

17 Mustard Agents (Blistering Agent) Contd…. Attacks the blood generating organs Attacks the blood generating organs (spleen, born marrow and lymphatic tissues) (spleen, born marrow and lymphatic tissues) Reduction of WBC Reduction of WBC Reduction immune defenses Reduction immune defenses Risk of severe infection Risk of severe infection Severe skin and lung injuries Severe skin and lung injuries No Antidotes No Antidotes

18 Mustard Agents (Blistering Agent) Symptoms Mild : Aching eyes with tears, Mild : Aching eyes with tears, Inflammation of the skin Inflammation of the skin Irritation of the mucous membrane and coughing, sneezing, hoarseness Irritation of the mucous membrane and coughing, sneezing, hoarseness Severe: Severe: Loss of sight blisters on the skin Loss of sight blisters on the skin Vomiting and diarrhea Vomiting and diarrhea Severe respiratory difficulty Severe respiratory difficulty Pulmonary oedema & chemical pneumonia Pulmonary oedema & chemical pneumonia

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20 Sarin Gas (Nerve gas) Extremely toxic nerve gas Extremely toxic nerve gas Organophosphorus compound Organophosphorus compound Colourless and odourless Colourless and odourless Attacks the nervous system. Attacks the nervous system. In high concentrations, can kill within 2-15 minutes of exposure. In high concentrations, can kill within 2-15 minutes of exposure. Eg: tabun, soman -G series Eg: tabun, soman -G series VX,VE,VG,VM-V Series-can kill within few VX,VE,VG,VM-V Series-can kill within few hours (low toxic) hours (low toxic)

21 Sarin Gas (Nerve gas) Symptoms Blurred vision Blurred vision Chest tightness Chest tightness Nausea,vomitting Nausea,vomitting Increase heart rate Increase heart rate Loss of consciousness Loss of consciousness Seizure Seizure Paralysis and death Paralysis and death

22 Biological Weapons(BW) Naturally occurring organisms and their toxins or mutant toxins cause diseases Naturally occurring organisms and their toxins or mutant toxins cause diseases eg. Bacteria,Viruses,Plants eg. Bacteria,Viruses,Plants Ideal Characteristics Ideal Characteristics High infectivity High infectivity High potency High potency Non availability of vaccines Non availability of vaccines Delivery as an aerosol Delivery as an aerosol

23 Biological Weapons(BW) Species Anthrax Anthrax Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens Smallpox Smallpox Ricinus(Ricin) Ricinus(Ricin) Rout of Exposure Rout of Exposure Cutaneous, Inhalational, Oral Cutaneous, Inhalational, Oral Specially attacks the mouth, throat, circulatory system, CNS and brain Specially attacks the mouth, throat, circulatory system, CNS and brain

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25 Biological Weapons(BW) Symptoms Microbe symptoms Microbe symptoms Bacillus anthracis Pulmonary Anthrax Septicemia, Flu-like symptoms Bacillus anthracis Pulmonary Anthrax Septicemia, Flu-like symptoms Clostridium botulinum Weakness, Double Vision and Vertigo, Clostridium botulinum Weakness, Double Vision and Vertigo, Clostridium botulinum Clostridium botulinum Difficulty in Speaking, Swallowing, and Difficulty in Speaking, Swallowing, and Breathing, Muscle Weakness Breathing, Muscle Weakness Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene, Severe Abdominal Cramps, Diarrhoea Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene, Severe Abdominal Cramps, Diarrhoea Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens RICIN Severe Abdominal Pain, Watery and Bloody Diarrhea, Vomiting, RICIN Severe Abdominal Pain, Watery and Bloody Diarrhea, Vomiting, RICIN Weakness, Fever, Cough, and Pulmonary Edema Weakness, Fever, Cough, and Pulmonary Edema Variola Virus Severe Abdominal Pain, Watery and Bloody Diarrhea, Vomiting, Weakness, Variola Virus Severe Abdominal Pain, Watery and Bloody Diarrhea, Vomiting, Weakness, Fever, Cough, and Pulmonary Edema Fever, Cough, and Pulmonary Edema

26 Antidotes are available for following chemicals Arsines-British Anti Lewisite, Dimercaptopropanol Arsines-British Anti Lewisite, Dimercaptopropanol Cyanides-Sodium thiosulphate,dicobolt editate,Hydroxocobalamin,NaNa2 Cyanides-Sodium thiosulphate,dicobolt editate,Hydroxocobalamin,NaNa2 Sarin- Atropin & Pralidoxim Sarin- Atropin & Pralidoxim

27 First Aid Remove the patient away from further exposure. Remove the patient away from further exposure. Important measure is to rapidly & thoroughly decontaminate the patient Important measure is to rapidly & thoroughly decontaminate the patient Clothes are removed Clothes are removed Body must wash body with soap thoroughly Body must wash body with soap thoroughly In severe exposure,hair must be shaved off In severe exposure,hair must be shaved off Eyes are rinsed with water or a Normal Saline for at least 5min: Eyes are rinsed with water or a Normal Saline for at least 5min: Do not give mouth to mouth respiration Do not give mouth to mouth respiration

28 THANK YOU


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