"Enlightenment is when a person leaves behind a state of immaturity and dependence ("Unmündigkeit", translated here as the phrase "immaturity and dependence") for which he himself was responsible. Immaturity and dependence are the inability to use one's own intellect without the direction of another. One is responsible for this immaturity and dependence, if its cause is not a lack of intelligence or eductation, but a lack of determination and courage to think without the direction of another. Sapere aude! Dare to know! is therefore the slogan of the Enlightenment.„ Kant 1784
Wikipedia: regarding the translation The German word "Unmündigkeit" means not having attained the age of majority or legal adulthood. It is sometimes also translated as "tutelage" or "nonage" (the condition of "not [being] of age"). Kant, whose moral philosophy is centered around the concept of autonomy, is distinguishing here between a person who is intellectually autonomous and one who keeps him/herself in an intellectually heteronomous, i.e. dependent and immature status.
Universal History (=UH) "Universal History: Historical writing that attempts to depict the history of the human race as a whole, understood as a unified process of development." (Harry Ritter, Dictionary of Concepts in History, p. 440)... doesn‘t mean the same in different epochs
UH = principle 18th century/ invention of UH as an expression of a universal future of mankind philosophy of histroy 19th century/ institutionalization of UH as the leading principle of history as an academic science philosophy of historical sciences
Universal History (18th century: Immanuel Kant) The UH is the expression of a universal reason composed by the answers to the following three questions 1. What can we know? means = reason Epistemology (Kritk der reinen Vernunft) 2. How can we reason? means = senses Aesthetics (Kritik der Urteilskraft) 3. What can we hope for? goal = freedom Ethics (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft)
Recommended reading... Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804): Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View =Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht. EA 1784 (verschiedenste aktuelle Ausgaben) hier In: Immanuel Kant (1980) Schriften zur Geschichtsphilosophie: 21-39) Reclam- Ausgabe
Dynamics of explanation... Human nature Human organism Needs Particular interessts Wishes Human resaon responsabilities duties Dimension of historical development Culture Civilisations Law morality transcendental bases of history
Asserting dynamics of Universal History (18th century) Through to the isolation of the UH from the variety of histories the matchlessness of the reason and its legal order is theoretically evidenced.
Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) Volk and Nation folk-nation is organic in its historical growth. Every nation is in this manner organic and whole, nationality a plant of nurture. Herder talked of the "national animal" and of the „physiology of the whole national group", which organism was topped by the "national spirit", the "soul of the people" (Volksgeist)
Eurocentrism a false understanding of universality?