Presentation on theme: "ENLIGHTENMENT Jonathan Dewald, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World Peter Hamilton, ‘The Enlightenment and the Birth of Social Science’"— Presentation transcript:
1ENLIGHTENMENTJonathan Dewald, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern WorldPeter Hamilton, ‘The Enlightenment and the Birth of Social Science’Chris Harman, A People’s History of the WorldSummary of the lecture notes, dbe
2Enlightenment (Age of Reason) a new framework of ideas about man, society and nature for challenging the existing conceptions rooted in the traditional world-view, especially dominated by Christianity and absolutism:anti-clerical (religion)antithetical to despotism/absolutism (politics)scientific (religion)
3Links to R&R and Break from R&R Space & TimeLinks to R&R and Break from R&RContinuity of respect and admire for the antiquity(neoclassical arthitecture & republican politics);Values of EnlightenmentREASONFREEDOMINDIVIDUALTOLERATIONSCEPTICISMSECULARISMRATIONALITYEMPRICISMSCIENCEPROGRESSUNIVERSALISMEQUALITYAntiquity(Greco-Roman)Religion(Judeo-Christian)Criticism of the superstitution, ignorance and intolerance of Christianity (and Judaism),Science and TechnologyScientific Revolution (Natural Sciences)Criticism of ABSOLUTISMPolitics
4Criticism of Religion and the Enlightenment values Space & TimeCriticism of Religion and the Enlightenment valuesREASON: emphasis on one’s reason , not guided by any authority/reason as way of orginizing knowledgeFREEDOM: opposition to feudal/traditional constraints on beliefs, trade and communicationINDIVIDUAL: Ind. is the starting point for all knowledge and action and ind. reason cannot be subjected to any higher authority.TOLERATIONSCEPTICISM: systematic doubtSECULARISM: decreasing influence of religion in the lives of the individuals.
5Enlightenment values: Reason, Individual and Freedom Kant’s ( ) definition (in Was ist Aufklarung?/What is Enlightenment?, 1784)“emancipation from self-incurred tutelage”[Tutelage: man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another.Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. ]“sapare aude” ( “dare to know”).Have courage to use your own REASON!Primacy of REASON AND INDIVIDUAL
6Science in the Enlightenment Space & Time2- Science in the EnlightenmentWhere does knowledge come from?What is it for?Science in the EnlightenmentEMPRICISMREASON/RATIONALITYSCIENCE: scientific knowledge based on experimental method as developed in scientific revolution of 17th century was the key to expand the all human knowldge.PROGRESS: natural and social conditions of human beings could be improved by the application of science and reason.UNIVERSALISM: Reason and science could be applied to any & every situation and their principles were the same in every situation.