Presentation on theme: "ENLIGHTENMENT Jonathan Dewald, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World Peter Hamilton, ‘The Enlightenment and the Birth of Social Science’"— Presentation transcript:
ENLIGHTENMENT Jonathan Dewald, Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World Peter Hamilton, ‘The Enlightenment and the Birth of Social Science’ Chris Harman, A People’s History of the World Summary of the lecture notes, dbe
2 Enlightenment (Age of Reason) Enlightenment: a new framework of ideas about man, society and nature for challenging the existing conceptions rooted in the traditional world-view, especially dominated by Christianity and absolutism: anti-clerical (religion) antithetical to despotism/absolutism (politics) scientific (religion)
Space & Time 3 Continuity of respect and admire for the antiquity (neoclassical arthitecture & republican politics); Criticism of the superstitution, ignorance and intolerance of Christianity (and Judaism), Scientific Revolution (Natural Sciences) Links to R&R and Break from R&R Antiquity ( Greco-Roman ) Religion (Judeo-Christian) Science and Technology Politics Values of Enlightenment REASON FREEDOM INDIVIDUAL TOLERATION SCEPTICISM SECULARISM RATIONALITY EMPRICISM SCIENCE PROGRESS UNIVERSALISM FREEDOM EQUALITY
Space & Time 4 Criticism of Religion and the Enlightenment values REASON: emphasis on one’s reason, not guided by any authority/reason as way of orginizing knowledge FREEDOM: opposition to feudal/traditional constraints on beliefs, trade and communication INDIVIDUAL: Ind. is the starting point for all knowledge and action and ind. reason cannot be subjected to any higher authority. TOLERATION SCEPTICISM: systematic doubt SECULARISM: decreasing influence of religion in the lives of the individuals.
5 Enlightenment values: Reason, Individual and Freedom Kant’s ( ) definition (in Was ist Aufklarung?/What is Enlightenment?, 1784) “emancipation from self-incurred tutelage” [Tutelage: man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. ] “sapare aude” ( “dare to know”). Have courage to use your own REASON! Primacy of REASON AND INDIVIDUAL
Space & Time 6 Science in the Enlightenment EMPRICISM REASON/RATIONALITY SCIENCE: scientific knowledge based on experimental method as developed in scientific revolution of 17th century was the key to expand the all human knowldge. PROGRESS: natural and social conditions of human beings could be improved by the application of science and reason. UNIVERSALISM: Reason and science could be applied to any & every situation and their principles were the same in every situation. 2- Science in the Enlightenment Where does knowledge come from? What is it for?