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This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium This project is funded by the European Union Projekat finansira.

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Presentation on theme: "This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium This project is funded by the European Union Projekat finansira."— Presentation transcript:

1 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium This project is funded by the European Union Projekat finansira Evropska Unija INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW OF SEVESO DIRECTIVE AND SAFETY REPORT REQUIREMENTS Ike van der Putte PhD Toxicology – EUROTOX registered MSc Environmental Sciences

2 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium THE SEVESO DIRECTIVE Source: RPS/EC, DG Environment/ECENA

3 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium PART I HISTORY AND BACKGROUND Flixborough (UK), 1974 Seveso (IT), 1976 Bhopal (India), 1984 Basel (Sandoz), Switzerland, 1986 Mexico City, Mexico, 1986 Aznallcollar (ES), 1998 Baia Mare (RO), 2000 Toulouse (FR), 2001 Texas City (USA), 2005 Buncefield (UK), 2006

4 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 4 Seveso, Italy, Manufacture of a bactericide - runaway reaction -emission of TCDD with dioxin -no fatalities, 447 burns, 737 long term evacuations Severe environmental damage Lack of information, no proper emergency plan Flixborough Accident, 1974 Release of 40 tonnes of cyclohexane massive vapour cloud explosion; 28 people killed (all on site). Basic cause was management failure

5 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Bhopal UC plant, 1984 Pesticide (carbaryl) production. Water entered a tank containing 42 tons of MIC. The resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C and raised the pressure. The tank vented releasing toxic gases into the Atmosphere. Estimates vary on the immediate death toll ( ) Sandoz Warehouse on the Rhine, 1986 A major environmental disaster caused by a fire and its subsequent extinguishing at an agrochemical storehouse, which released toxic agrochemicals into the air and resulted in tons of pollutants entering the Rhine river. The chemicals caused a massive mortality of wildlife downstream,

6 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Aznallcollar dam break, 1998 Baia Mare dam break, 2000 resulted in the river Danube becoming polluted. Waste from gold mining ran into the river all the way to the Black Sea and affected drinking water a holding dam burst at the Los Frailes mine, releasing 4–5 million cubic metres of mine tailings. The acidic tailings with high levels of heavy metals, reached the River Guadiana, which is the main water source for the Deanna National Park, one of the largest national parks in Europe. The cleanup operation: 3 years Estimated cost of €240 million.

7 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Enschede Firework Explosion, 2000 was the biggest accident seen in Europe in decades. The fireworks factory was based in the middle of the town. It killed more than 20 and injured over 300 people.

8 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Toulouse accident, 2001 An explosion of 300 tons of ammonium nitrate at a fertilizer plant killed 29 people, Texas City accident, 2005 A fire and explosion occurred at in an isomerization unit at the refinery killing 15 workers and injuring more than 170 others

9 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Buncefield accident, 2006 Evidence shows that the main explosion probably resulted from the ignition of a vapour cloud emanating from Tank 912 in Bund A in the Hertfordshire Oil Storage A large fire ensued that engulfed 21 of the tanks on site.

10 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium DATABASE ON MAJOR ACCIDENTS ( ) 603 accidents and near misses reported ~ 66% due to management failure ~10% caused environmental damage ~66 % caused injuries or fatalities eMARS - Major Accident Reporting System Database of "major accidents" reported under Seveso, OECD and UN-ECE Managed by the Major Accident Hazards Bureau (MAHB)

11 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium LESSONS LEARNT DATABASE ON MAJOR ACCIDENTS LESSONS LEARNT Main cause - inadequate management Inadequate design and maintenance Inadequate decisions Inability to take decisions Cover-up of safety breaches and “Blame game” approach Lack of safety culture – “Macho culture”, “Do-it-fast” Inadequate assessment of the existing hazards and the associated risks

12 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium LESSONS LEARNT DATABASE ON MAJOR ACCIDENTS LESSONS LEARNT Main accident risks Abnormal Operations Maintenance operations Start-up or shutdown procedures Unforeseen weather conditions Loading/unloading operations Nightshifts Inadequate Design & Maintenance Decisions Bad Installations Design Inadequate Maintenance & Operation procedures Inadequate Design of Safety Equipment

13 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 13 SEVESO DIRECTIVE – DEVELOPMENT RELATED TO MAJOR ACCIDENTS : Flixborough, United Kingdom 1976: Seveso, Italy 1982: Original « Seveso Directive » adopted (82/501/EEC) 1984: Bhopal, India 1986: Basel, Switzerland 9 Dec 1996: « Seveso II Directive » adopted (96/82/EC)  3 Feb 1999: « Seveso II » must be applied in the Member States of the European Union 30 Jan 2000: Baia Mare, Romania 15 May 2000: Enschede, Netherlands 21 Sep 2001: Toulouse, France 16 Dec 2003: Amendment 2003/105/EC

14 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 14 Seveso I - Objectives Prevention of major accident hazards of certain industrial activities and isolated storage Protection of the public and the environment Provision of information to Authorities Information to the public on risk Collection of major-accident data (No MAPP + SMS explicitly required; focus on info to CA) Seveso II Lessons learned from major-accidents and the experience from Seveso I was incorporated into the Seveso II Regulations

15 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 15 Objectives of Seveso II Control of Major-Accident Hazards (COMAH) involving dangerous substances Improved risk and accident management Land-use planning controls Catch all establishments with sufficient inventory Lays down principles for safety management

16 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 16 Objectives of Seveso II (Continued) Revised Safety Report Domino effects to be considered Public access to information Emergency plans to be revised and tested as necessary Inspection of plants across the EU Member states to provide information to the Commission 2003 – Amendment of Seveso II Broader Scope – Tailing Ponds/explosives/ammonium nitrate Extended requirements for Risk Assessment 2015 – Seveso III

17 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium IN TOTAL APPROX. 105 INSTALLATIONS Upper tier plants: 46 installations Lower tier plants: 59 installations Safety report Accidents protection plan PRELIMINARY LIST OF SEVESO PLANTS SERBIA Accident prevention policy Notification Ref. Ljiljana Stanojevic 2012

18 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 18 SEVESO PLANTS IN REPUBLIC OF SERBIA Upper tier installations Lower tier installations

19 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium a Total number of Seveso establishments in the whole EU in the years 2009 to 2011 (Report from the Commission Brussels, C(2013) 4035 final ) SEVESO Establishments in the EU

20 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Among the 49 activities used to categorize the Seveso establishments, seven activities contribute to 50% of establishments: – Fuel storage (including heating, retail sale, etc.); – Wholesale and retail storage and distribution (excluding LPG); – LPG storage; – General chemicals manufacture; – Production of basic organic chemicals; – Power generation, supply and distribution; – LPG production, bottling and bulk distribution. Commission Report – SEVESO Establishments (2009 – 2011)

21 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Number of reported Major Accidents Commission Report

22 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium There is a general reducing trend in the number of fatalities and of injuries reported over the last decade. The total number of fatalities went down from 27 in 2000 to 9 in In particular there has been no fatality off-site since The total number of injuries went down from 126 in 2000 to 23 in Among the hazardous phenomena involved in the accidents reported in eMARS, toxic release appears to be the most frequent, for every year except 2002, 2003 and 2010, in which explosions and fires occurred more frequently. The main substance categories involved are: – Toxic: 91 major accidents; – Extremely flammable: 80 major accidents; – Very toxic: 53 major accidents. Fatalities, injuries and type of major accidents

23 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium SEVESO III 2012/18/EU First reading agreement on 27 March 2012 Adopted4th July 2012 Published 24th July (OJ L 197/1) Entry into force13th August 2012 National transposition31rd May 2015 Implementation 1st June 2015

24 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Seveso III Main purpose – align scope to new international chemicals classification (CLP Regulation transposing GHS classification) Clarify/improve - Inspections -Information to the public -Public participation -Access to justice Main philosophy Seveso II remains

25 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Why do we need GHS? GHSDanger (Skull & Cross Bones) Transportliquid: slightly toxic; solid: not classified EUHarmful (St Andrew’s Cross) USToxic CANToxic AustraliaHarmful IndiaNon-toxic JapanToxic MalaysiaHarmful ThailandHarmful New ZealandHazardous ChinaNot Dangerous KoreaToxic Substance - oral toxicity LD 50 = 257 mg/kg

26 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium PHILOSOPHY SEVESO Safe Management Safe Technology Demonstrate safety in the Safety Report Emergency Planning Land-Use Planning Information to the Public I N S P E C T I O N S Accident Reporting and Lessons Learnt

27 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Inspections – Art 20 Inspection plan (National, Regional or Local) covering all Seveso establishments, to include general safety assessment info on domino-effects info on particular external risks/hazards procedures for routine/non-routine inspections cooperation between inspection authorities Based on this, competent authority to establish programmes for routine inspections including frequency of site visits

28 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Information – Art 14, Annex V All establishments (also LT) - Annex V information permanently available electronically (info to the public) dangerous substances appropriate behaviour in case of an accident last site visit (inspection) or electronic reference indication where more info can be obtained upon request UT - inform on main accident scenarios measures UT - appropriate info from external emergency plans UT - inform if establishment close to other Member State

29 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium For upper-tier establishments, Member States shall also ensure that: (a)all persons likely to be affected by a major accident receive regularly and in the most appropriate form, without having to request it, clear and intelligible information on safety measures and requisite behaviour in the event of a major accident ; Article 14- Information to the Public: active provision of information – not just on request! Information shall include at least ANNEX V info and supplied to all Buildings and areas of public use (schools, hospitals, neighbouring Establishments)

30 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Public participation – Art 15 Article 15 – sets/refers to detailed procedural rules in relation to participation in land use planning specific individual projects (rules set) general plans and programmes (reference to Directive 2003/35/EC) = inform public, duly take into account comments and motivate final decision Article 12(5) - public concerned must be given early opportunity to give its opinion on external emergency plans

31 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium Access to justice - Art 23 Administrative AND judicial review of acts/omissions in relation to requests for any information held under the directive At least judicial review of acts/omissions in relation to cases of public participation on specific individual projects No access to justice in relation to public participation on general plans and programmes/external emergency plans, unless otherwise provided under national law

32 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium PART II SCOPE OF THE DIRECTIVE ALL ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH STORE DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES ABOVE SPECIFIC THRESHOLDS Exclusions: -Hazards from ionizing radiation -Transport outside the establishment -Landfills, quarries and mines -Offshore exploration -Military installations

33 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium DEFINITIONS A MAJOR ACCIDENT is a major emission, fire or explosion*, leading to serious danger to human health and/or the environment, immediate or delayed, inside or outside an establishment, involving one or more dangerous substances *Resulting from uncontrolled developments in the course of operation of the establishement

34 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium DEFINITIONS AN ESTABLISHMENT is the whole area under the control of the operator AN INSTALLATION is a technical unit within an establishment

35 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium DEFINITIONS HAZARD is an intrinsic property of a dangerous substance, with a potential for harm RISK Is the likelihood of a specific effect occurring

36 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES Named Substances e.g. Sulphur trioxide or Substances with certain generic hazardous properties e.g. Flammability Now new CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 The Classification is done according the EU Directives on Classification, Packaging and Labeling (67/548/EEC and 99/45/EC) DEFINITIONS

37 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium THRESHOLDS Annex I Two categories based on quantities stored  Lower Tier  Upper Tier Upper Tier has more responsibilities

38 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium REQUIREMENTS LOWER TIER General Obligations Notification Major Accident Prevention Policy Modifications Accident Reports Cooperation with Authorities

39 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium OBLIGATIONS UPPER TIER Lower Tier Obligations and Safety Report Internal Emergency Plans Information to Public

40 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF AN OPERATOR To take all measures necessary to prevent major accidents and to limit their consequences The operator must be able to “demonstrate” that the hazards are identified and all necessary measures are taken

41 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium ROLE OF THE COMPETENT AUTHORITIES Administrative, executive and enforcement responsibilities Review of Documentation Inspection Prohibition of Activity if  Serious deficiencies are present  Documentation inadequate Preparation and Testing of External Emergency Plans Identification of possible Domino effects Implementation of Land-use Policies

42 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium DOMINO EFFECT AN ACCIDENT ON ONE SEVESO SITE COULD AFFECT NEIGHBORING SEVESO SITES Based on info (notification/SR) or requested by the CA the operators must exchange information and cooperate in the area of risk management, emergency response and public information

43 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium MAPP MAJOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION POLICY Designed to guarantee a high level of protection for Man and the Environment by appropriate Means, Structures and Safety Management Systems MAPP consists of Policy Statement Safety Management System

44 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium MAPP THE SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 1.Organisation and Personnel 2.Identification and Evaluation of Hazards 3.Operational Control 4.Management of change 5.Emergency Planning 6.Performance Monitoring 7.Audit and Review Lower Tier - MAPP is a separate document Upper Tier - MAPP is part of Safety Report

45 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium SAFETY REPORT MUST CONTAIN Major Accident Prevention Policy Safety Management System Identification of Hazards Analysis and Assessment of Risk Adequate Prevention/Limitation Measures Internal Emergency Plans Information for Land-use Planning Applies to Upper Tier Sites

46 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium INTERNAL EMERGENCY PLAN OBJECTIVES Controlling incidents to minimise effects Implementing protection measures Communicating information to the Public and the Authorities Providing for clean-up and restoration of the environment

47 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium EXTERNAL EMERGENCY PLAN To be prepared by the Local or National Designated Authority The Operator must provide relevant information requested by the Authority Details of the Plan to be communicated by the Authority to the Operator in order to ensure Compatibility of Internal & External EP

48 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium PUBLIC INFORMATION Information must be made available to the Public to include  The Safety Report  An explanation of site activities  Nature and quantity of dangerous substances  Nature of hazard posed  How the population will be alerted to an accident Applies to Upper Tier Sites

49 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium IF A MAJOR ACCIDENT OCCURS Circumstances of the accident Dangerous substances involved Data available for assessing the effects of the accident Emergency actions undertaken The CA must be informed of

50 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE The Directive requires that Member States and the Commission will exchange information and experience such as - Analysing the causes of accidents - Lessons learned - Measures necessary to prevent recurrence Member States must report data on major accidents to the Commission

51 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 51 IN SUMMARY

52 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 52 SEVESO II DIRECTIVE - AIM Accidental (  Continuous) Risks prevention of major accidents involving dangerous substances limitation of the consequences of accidents on man and the environment high level of protection for man and the environment throughout the European Union

53 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 53 SEVESO DIRECTIVE – SCOPE & MAIN OBLIGATIONS Excluded Sector? (Article 4) Seveso does not apply What is the quantity of dangerous substances? (Annex I) Lower than lower tier Notification Major Accident Prevention Policy (MAPP) Domino Effects Land-use planning Inspection Quantity above the lower threshold Additionally: Safety report (including MAPP and Safety Management System) Emergency plans (internal and external) Information to the public Quantity above the higher threshold Yes No nuclear, transport, military

54 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 54 SEVESO DIRECTIVE – SCOPE, METHODS ~ 4000 upper + ~ 4000 lower tier establishments storing dangerous substances -EU Mainly chemical and petrochemical industry, storage, big industrial production and energy installations Criteria: Hazard: Quantity of dangerous substances present.. the Seveso II Directive contains no detailed procedures and guidelines for risk assessment and management. A variety of such procedures is currently in use, employing different terminologies and underlying philosophies, making cross-comparison of results difficult.

55 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 55 SEVESO DIRECTIVE – CONTROL MEASURES AIMED AT PREVENTION Upper and lower tier: General obligations Notification Major Accident Prevention Policy Domino Effects Inspection by Competent Authorities For upper tier only: Safety Report Safety Management System

56 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 56 Upper and lower tier: General obligations Land-Use Planning Information to the Public For upper tier only: Emergency Planning More information to the Public on MAH SEVESO DIRECTIVE – CONTROL MEASURES AIMED AT LIMITATION OF THE CONSEQUENCES

57 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium 57 to align Annex I to the Directive to changes to the EU system of classification of dangerous substances (CLP) to include corrective mechanisms to adapt Annex I in the future to strengthen the provisions relating to public access to safety information, participation in decision-making and access to justice, to introduce stricter standards for inspections of installations to ensure the effective implementation and enforcement of safety rules. Stricter Landuse planning requirements As a result of the review process, on 21 December 2010 the Commission adopted a proposal for a new Directive, replacing the current SEVESO II Directive by 1 June – Seveso III

58 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium CORRELATION WITH OTHER EU LEGISLATION CLP Directives Definition of Hazardous Substances & Preparations REACH Chemical Safety reports New Studies on Chemicals – New Classification possible GHS New Classification Rules – Downstream Effect Labour safety Complementary to each other

59 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium CORRELATION WITH OTHER EU LEGISLATION IPPC Directive - Different scope IPPC SITES SEVESO SITES IPPC SITES ONLY Minor and Major Accidents SEVESO SITES ONLY Major Accidents IPPC/SEVESO SITES Minor Accidents/Spills IPPC Major Accidents Seveso

60 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium CORRELATION WITH OTHER EU LEGISLATION IPPC Directive Synergies Use of management systems Use of less hazardous materials at the site Reduction in the volume of hazardous material stored at the site Differences Seveso - protection of human health and environment from the negatife effects of major accidents through prevention of major accidents using SMS IPPC - protecting environment and human health on a long term basis by preventing and minimising pollution through use of BAT and EMS Potential Conflicts Safety over Environment ? Siting of establishments Technical measures

61 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium CORRELATION WITH OTHER MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENT AND CHEMICAL AGREEMENTS UNECE Convention Seveso II Directive based on some of the Requirements of the Convention Safety Management System Emergency Plan Public Information and Participation Additional Requirements Notification to Parties Access to Justice for residents of affected Parties

62 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium OTHER ACCIDENT PREVENTION AND CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES SAICM Goal – Chemical Safety throughout their Lifecycle Stipulates Safe Technologies Welcomes Public Information and Participation as well as International Cooperation Provides Platform for Knowledge Transfer and Capacity Building IFCS Facilitation of international cooperation Promotion of national chemicals management Identification of gaps in scientific understanding Promotion of Information Exchange and Technical Cooperation, Advice to Governments on chemical safety OECD Extensive Programme on Chemical Safety Guiding Principles on several Topics Wide ranging Cooperation

63 This Project is funded by the European Union Project implemented by Human Dynamics Consortium REFERENCES 1.Chemical Accidents (Seveso I, II and III) - Prevention, Preparedness and Response 2. I.van der Putte. RENA- Working Group 4- ECENA 3. Report on the Application in the Member States of Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances for the period Final REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION Brussels, C(2013) 4035


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