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This project and its actions were made possible due to co-financing by the European Fund for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals Rocks: sedimentary,

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Presentation on theme: "This project and its actions were made possible due to co-financing by the European Fund for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals Rocks: sedimentary,"— Presentation transcript:

1 This project and its actions were made possible due to co-financing by the European Fund for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals Rocks: sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic Subject(s):Geography, Science Age group(s):8–11, 12–14, 15–16 Topic:Types of rocks EAL Nexus resource Licence information | This resource is free to use for educational purposes. © British Council 2014 Source | This resource was originally developed from a resource on TES by j33ffa, Charlotte Hurley and Alison Fisher and has been adapted by EAL Nexus.

2 Limestone – sedimentary rock (rock formed from sediment) Limestone is formed from the shells and skeletons of sea animals so may contain fossils. It is very heavy so it cannot be used for tall buildings. It is easy to cut and carve into detailed shapes. It reacts with acid rain which corrodes the buildings. light heavy © Serouj © Coyau © Hannes Grobe. Uses: Buildings Roads Wall filler Cement

3 Sandstone – sedimentary rock (rock formed from sediment) Sandstone is made of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Sandstone comes in many colours such as brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white and black, but is usually a reddish-brown. It is easy to carve but can crumble. Uses: Buildings Paving Carvings Sharpening tools Sandstone wears away easily in the rain and cold. The surface of sandstone is rough. © Connie Ma © Whitegoast.unk

4 Shale – sedimentary rock (rock formed from sediment) Shale is made of very fine rounded grains of sediment that have compacted together. Uses: Tiles Bricks Pottery Shale is grey to black in colour. Shale contains mud and flakes of clay. Shale often contains fossils. Shale can be split into thin sheets. Shale is often found in lakes, by rivers, on floodplains and offshore from beaches. © Michael C. Rygel

5 Chalk – sedimentary rock (rock formed from sediment) Chalk is formed from the shells of one type of sea creature. Uses: Toothpaste Fingerprint powder Blackboard chalk Chalk is white.Chalk is crumbly. Chalk is porous and can hold a large amount of water. Chalk doesn’t weather easily, so chalk cliffs still stand by the sea. © Michael King

6 Obsidian – igneous rock (rock formed when magma cools) Obsidian is formed when molten rock cools quickly. Uses: Knives/sharp tools Jewellery gems It is dark black and shiny. It is hard and brittle and can be broken to make sharp edges. Obsidian is a type of volcanic glass. © AlejandroLinaresGarcia © Simon Burchell

7 Gabbro – igneous rock (rock formed when magma cools) Gabbro is formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth’s surface. Uses: Building Decorating buildings Kitchen worktops Paving stones Gabbro is dark grey to black in colour. Gabbro has a rough surface. Gabbro is usually found near ocean ridges and in mountainous areas. Gabbro has large interlocking crystals. © Maria Ly © Kevin Walsh © Roll-Stone © Ggrrdll

8 Basalt – igneous rock (rock formed when magma cools) Basalt rock is formed by the rapid cooling of lava near the surface. Uses: Cobbles Statues Paving roads It is dark grey and very hard. Basalt sometimes forms columns of stone as it hardens. Basalt weathers in air and water to change to a red- brown colour. Basalt has a rough surface. © Eurico Zimbres © ray blow

9 Granite – igneous rock (rock formed when magma cools) Granite is made when molten rock from a volcano is cooled down and forms large interlocking crystals. Granite is a very heavy material. Granite can be polished to make it smooth and to make it look good. Uses: Buildings Kitchen worktops Kitchen utensils Granite is hard and tough. light heavy Granite comes in many colours from pink to grey and sometimes black. © Halvard © Ggrrdll

10 Marble – metamorphic rock (rock changed by heat or pressure) Marble is made from limestone that has been heated to change it into marble. It is very heavy. It is often white and has coloured swirls and streaks. light heavy Uses: Sculptures Buildings Statues Chopping boards Tiles It is easy to polish and make the surface smooth and shiny. It is easy to carve because it is soft and doesn’t crumble when cut.

11 Slate – metamorphic rock (rock changed by heat or pressure) Slate is made when mudstones called shale are changed by heat and pressure. Slate is blue, purple and grey in colour. It is easy to cut into thin sheets due to its layers. Uses: Roof and floor tiles Walls Decorative gravel Gravestones Slate is waterproof. The crystals that the slate is made from are arranged in layers.

12 Gneiss – metamorphic rock (rock changed by heat or pressure) Gneiss is formed when sedimentary and igneous rocks are exposed to extreme temperatures and pressure. Uses: Building construction Decorative facing Gravestones Base for roads Gneiss often has alternating bands of colour that make interesting patterns. The bands are due to the various rocks it is made from. Gneiss has a coarse texture and is rough to the touch. The quartz in gneiss makes it sparkle. © Siim Sepp © Daniel CD © Michael C Rygel

13 Soapstone – metamorphic rock (rock changed by heat or pressure) Soapstone is formed when sedimentary and igneous rocks are exposed to extreme temperatures and pressure. Uses: Bowls Carved objects Lining fireplaces Jewellery Soapstone is grey, green, pink or white in colour. It feels slippery like soap. Soapstone has a high resistance to heat and acid. Soapstone is a soft stone and is easy to carve with a sharp tool such as a knife. Soapstone can be polished to a smooth finish. © Ra’ike

14 Limestone

15 Sandstone

16 Shale

17 Chalk

18 Obsidian

19 Gabbro

20 Basalt

21 Granite

22 Marble

23 Slate

24 Gneiss

25 Soapstone

26

27 Limestone It is a sedimentary rock. It is formed from the shells of sea animals. It may contain remains of fossils. It is used in buildings and to make cement. It is heavy. It corrodes.

28 Sandstone It is a sedimentary rock. It is made of sand-sized grains of similar sizes. It can be many colours, but is often reddish brown. It feels rough. It is easy to carve. It can crumble. It can be used to sharpen tools.

29 Shale It is a sedimentary rock. It is made of very fine rounded grains. Fossils are often found in it. It forms layers which can be split into thin sheets. It can be used to make tiles. It is formed in lakes.

30 Chalk It is a sedimentary rock. It is formed from the shells of a particular sea animal. It is white. It is porous. It is used to write on blackboards.

31 Obsidian It is an igneous rock. It is formed by magma cooling quickly. It is dark and shiny like glass. It is used to make very sharp knives.

32 Gabbro It is an igneous rock. It has large interlocking crystals. It is usually dark grey. It can be used for paving stones. It is rough. It can be found in mountainous areas.

33 Basalt It is an igneous rock. It has small interlocking crystals. It is dark grey and very hard. It sometimes forms columns of stone as it hardens. It turns red when it weathers.

34 Granite It is an igneous rock. It has interlocking crystals. It is formed by magma cooling slowly, so it has large crystals. It is used for kitchen worktops because it is so hard. It is heavy.

35 Marble It is a metamorphic rock. It is formed from limestone. It can be many colours but is often white with streaks in it. It is used for making statues and chopping boards. It is heavy.

36 Slate It is a metamorphic rock. It is formed from shale. Its crystals are arranged in layers. It is used to make roof tiles. It can be blue, purple and grey.

37 Gneiss It is a metamorphic rock. It is formed from sedimentary and igneous rocks. It is formed under pressure. It has alternating bands of colours. It is rough to touch. It sparkles.

38 Soapstone It is a metamorphic rock. It is quite a soft rock. It is used for making bowls and other objects with carvings. It feels smooth and slippery. It has a high resistance to heat.


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