Presentation on theme: "THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 35. Body Organization Cell- basic unit of structure and function Specialized- made for a particular function Tissues Epithelial-"— Presentation transcript:
Body Organization Cell- basic unit of structure and function Specialized- made for a particular function Tissues Epithelial- Connective- Nervous Muscle- Organs and organ systems
Homeostasis- the process by which organisms keep internal conditions relatively constant despite changes in external environments Feedback Mechanisms—Utilized by the nervous system to help maintain homeostasis. Feedback mechanisms help to keep the body “on track”. Positive Feedback—Ex: Blood clotting, Fever. Negative Feedback—Ex: Blood pressure, Metabolic “set point”.
The nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body, enabling organisms to respond to internal and external stimuli.
NEURONS Nerve Cells Units of the nervous system Transmit electrical signals called impulses throughout the body.
“RESTING” NEURONS Resting Potential— The electrical charge across the cell membrane of a neuron in its “resting” state. Sodium (Na + ) ions are actively pumped out of the cell. Potassium (K + ) ions are pumped into the cell. Permeable cell membrane = Leaky K + leaving cell
MOVING IMPULSE A neuron remains in its resting state until it receives a stimulus large enough to start a nerve impulse. Action Potential—Occurs when Na + channels open, causing sodium ions to flood into the cell. Impulse termination—Occurs when the sodium gates close, and K + channels open. Returns to resting potential.
THRESHOLD POTENTIAL Remember—the strength of an impulse is always the same. The stimulus causing the impulse, however, may vary! Threshold—The potential that a stimulus must reach in order to be ‘strong’ enough to transmit an impulse. Causes action potential. All-or-None Principle—Either a stimulus will produce an impulse or not.
DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Division Motor Division Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System
THE BRAIN Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem Hypothalamus Thalamus
THE CEREBRUM Largest part of the human brain. Responsible for voluntary actions; is the site for intelligence, learning, and judgment. 2 Hemispheres—Right and Left, each divided into lobes. Corpus Callosum—Band of tissue connecting the hemispheres. 2 Layers Outer—Cerebral cortex, consisting of gray matter. Gray matter consists of densely packed nerve cell bodies. Inner—Made up of white matter. White matter consists of bundles of axons & their myelin sheaths.
Cerebellum—2 nd largest portion of the human brain, responsible for coordination and balance of muscle action. Brain Stem—Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Neural “switchboard” that regulates the flow of info between the brain and the body. Blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, swallowing. Thalamus and Hypothalamus—Found between the brainstem and the cerebrum. Thalamus—Receives messages from sensory receptors throughout the body. Hypothalamus—Recognizes sensations of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature. Coordinates nervous and endocrine systems. Located above Thalamus.
Spinal Cord—Main communications link between the brain and the rest of the body. Reflex—Some reflexes are processed directly in the spinal cord. A reflex is a quick, automatic response to a stimulus. Reflex Arc—The pathway that an impulse travels from a sensory receptor to an effector. Receptor SensoryNeuron interneuron in spinal cord →Motor Neuron Effector
Sensory Division of PNS—Transmits impulses from sense organs to the Central Nervous System (CNS). Motor Division of PNS—Transmits impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands. Subdivisions: Somatic Nervous System—regulates activities that are under voluntary control, such as muscle movement.(but also includes reflexes) Autonomic Nervous System—Regulates activities that are automatic, or involuntary. Composed of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems.
Sympathetic Nervous System Extends from thoracic to lumbar vertebrae-nerves originate in spinal column Organ Associated with “fight-or- flight” response-sense of danger or excitement Effect EyeDilates pupil HeartIncreases rate and force of contraction LungsDilates bronchiolesbronchioles Blood VesselsConstricts Sweat GlandsActivates sweat secretion Digestive tractInhibits peristalsisperistalsis KidneyIncreases renin secretionrenin
Parasympathetic Nerves Usually related to “housekeeping” tasks, like digestion, or decreasing heart rate Not much outside stimulation After response of sympathetic nerves to return to normal after the sympathetic nerves have responded to a stressful or exciting situation