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The Human Nervous System. Neuron- A Nerve Cell Cell body  Cell body  Contains the nucleus and other organelles  Dendrites  Receive stimuli  Conduct.

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Presentation on theme: "The Human Nervous System. Neuron- A Nerve Cell Cell body  Cell body  Contains the nucleus and other organelles  Dendrites  Receive stimuli  Conduct."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Nervous System

2 Neuron- A Nerve Cell Cell body  Cell body  Contains the nucleus and other organelles  Dendrites  Receive stimuli  Conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axon  Carries impulses away from the cell body Cell body  Cell body  Contains the nucleus and other organelles  Dendrites  Receive stimuli  Conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axon  Carries impulses away from the cell body

3 Axon Structure Myelin sheath  Myelin sheath  Insulating coat of plasma membranes  Sections of sheath are called “Schwann Cells”  Unmyelinated axons carry impulses much slower than myelinated axons  Nodes of Ranvier  Bare axonal membrane between Schwann cells Myelin sheath  Myelin sheath  Insulating coat of plasma membranes  Sections of sheath are called “Schwann Cells”  Unmyelinated axons carry impulses much slower than myelinated axons  Nodes of Ranvier  Bare axonal membrane between Schwann cells

4 The Synapse Synapse  The gap between nerve cellsNeurotransmitter  Chemicals that carry nerve signals across the synapseSynapse  The gap between nerve cellsNeurotransmitter  Chemicals that carry nerve signals across the synapse

5 Reflex Arc The reflex arc responds to a stimulus without the immediate involvement of the brain

6 Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord

7 Cerebrum  Directs voluntary movement  Sensory processing  Language and communication  Learning and memory  Directs voluntary movement  Sensory processing  Language and communication  Learning and memory

8 Cerebellum  Regulates sense of balance  Coordinates voluntary muscle movement  Regulates sense of balance  Coordinates voluntary muscle movement

9 Medulla Oblongata  Breathing  Heart rate  Blood pressure  Swallowing and digestion  Breathing  Heart rate  Blood pressure  Swallowing and digestion

10 Peripheral Nervous System (in blue)

11 Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Sensory Division – Bring information to the CNS Motor Motor Division – Carries signals away from the CNS Somatic (voluntary) nervous system controls skeletal muscle action Autonomic nervous system (involuntary) controls organ systems and smooth muscle Sensory Sensory Division – Bring information to the CNS Motor Motor Division – Carries signals away from the CNS Somatic (voluntary) nervous system controls skeletal muscle action Autonomic nervous system (involuntary) controls organ systems and smooth muscle

12 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Sympathetic – Stress responses (Fight or Flight) Pupils dilate Mouth dries up (saliva decreases) Heart rate increases Blood flow to skeletal muscle increases Parasympathetic Parasympathetic – Relaxation response Heart rate slows Pupils constrict Stimulates salivation Digestive processes stimulated Sympathetic Sympathetic – Stress responses (Fight or Flight) Pupils dilate Mouth dries up (saliva decreases) Heart rate increases Blood flow to skeletal muscle increases Parasympathetic Parasympathetic – Relaxation response Heart rate slows Pupils constrict Stimulates salivation Digestive processes stimulated


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