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1 On the menu at top click on “Slide Show” and then click on “From Beginning”, If this opens in PowerPoint, otherwise just click to start.

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Presentation on theme: "1 On the menu at top click on “Slide Show” and then click on “From Beginning”, If this opens in PowerPoint, otherwise just click to start."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 On the menu at top click on “Slide Show” and then click on “From Beginning”, If this opens in PowerPoint, otherwise just click to start.

2 Southwestern Illinois EMS System Introduction to Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology 2

3 Introduction Cardiovascular disorder – Diseases, conditions that involve heart, blood vessels Heart disease – Conditions affecting heart 3

4 Introduction Coronary heart disease – Coronary arteries, resulting complications Angina pectoris, acute MI Coronary artery disease – Affects arteries that supply heart muscle with blood 4

5 Risk Factors & Prevention Strategies Risk factors – Nonmodifiable (fixed) risk factors – Modifiable risk factors High blood pressure Elevated serum cholesterol levels Tobacco use Diabetes 5

6 Risk Factors & Prevention Strategies Risk factors – Modifiable risk factors Physical inactivity Obesity, body fat distribution Metabolic syndrome 6

7 Risk Factors & Prevention Strategies Risk factors – Contributing risk factors Stress Inflammatory markers Psychosocial factors Alcohol intake 7

8 Cardiovascular Anatomy & Physiology 8

9 Anatomy Review Blood vessels – Arteries – Arterioles – Capillaries – Venules – Veins 9

10 Anatomy Review Heart anatomy – Location Mediastinum Behind sternum, above diaphragm Base Apex 10

11 Anatomy Review Heart Location 11

12 Anatomy Review Heart anatomy – Heart chambers Upper chambers – Right, left atria Lower chambers – Right, left ventricles 12

13 Anatomy Review Heart anatomy – Septum – Pulmonary circulation – Systemic circulation – Blood carried from heart to body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries – Blood returned to heart through venules, veins 13

14 Anatomy Review Heart anatomy Heart layers Endocardium Myocardium Epicardium Pericardium 14

15 Anatomy Review Heart anatomy – Heart valves AV valves – Separate atria from ventricles – Tricuspid valve, between right atrium, right ventricle – Mitral/bicuspid valve lies between left atrium, left ventricle – Open when forward pressure forces blood forward – Close when backward pressure pushes blood backward 15

16 Anatomy Review Heart anatomy – Atrial kick Blood flows continuously into atria 70% flows directly through, into ventricles before atria contract When atria contract, additional 30% added to filling of ventricles When ventricles contract (systole), pressure rises Tricuspid, mitral valves close when pressure within ventricles exceeds that of atria 16

17 Anatomy Review Heart anatomy – Semilunar (SL) valves Pulmonic, aortic valves Prevent backflow of blood from aorta, pulmonary arteries into ventricles Close as ventricular contraction ends, pressure in pulmonary artery, aorta exceeds that of ventricles Chordae tendinae, connective tissue, attached to AV valves underside & papillary muscles 17

18 Anatomy Review Blood flow through heart – Enters right atrium via superior, inferior venae cavae, coronary sinus – Right atrium through tricuspid valve into right ventricle – Right ventricle expels blood through pulmonic valve into pulmonary trunk – Flows through pulmonary arteries to lungs 18

19 Anatomy Review Blood flow through heart – Low in O 2, passes through pulmonary capillaries – From left atrium through mitral valve into left ventricle – Distributed throughout body through aorta, its branches 19

20 Anatomy Review Blood flow through heart – Tissues of head, neck, upper extremities via superior vena cava – Lower body via inferior vena cava – Superior, inferior vena cava carry contents into right atrium 20

21 Anatomy Review Cardiac cycle – Repetitive pumping process, events associated with blood flow through heart – Systole – Diastole 21

22 Anatomy Review Cardiac cycle – Depends on cardiac muscle ability to contract, condition of heart’s conduction system – Pressure with each chamber rises in systole, falls in diastole – Conduction system provides timing of events between atrial, ventricular systole 22

23 Anatomy Review Coronary arteries – Right, left – Main arteries – Left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), right coronary artery (RCA) – Lie on outer surface of heart 23

24 Anatomy Review Coronary Arteries 24

25 Anatomy Review Coronary veins – Travel alongside arteries – Coronary sinus, largest vein, drains heart 25

26 Anatomy Review Heart rate – Affected by sympathetic, parasympathetic ANS – Chronotropic effect – Inotropic effect – Dromotropic effect 26

27 Anatomy Review Heart rate – Baroreceptors Specialized nerve tissue (sensors) Found in internal carotid arteries, aortic arch Detect changes in blood pressure When stimulated cause sympathetic/parasympathetic response Will “reset” to new “normal” after few days of exposure to specific pressure 27

28 Anatomy Review Heart rate – Chemoreceptors In internal carotid arteries, aortic arch, medulla detect changes in concentration of hydrogen ions (pH), O 2, carbon dioxide in blood 28

29 Anatomy Review Heart rate – Parasympathetic stimulation Parasympathetic fibers supply sinoatrial node, atrial muscle, & AV junction of heart by vagus nerves 29

30 Anatomy Review Heart rate – Sympathetic stimulation Sympathetic nerves supply specific areas of heart’s electrical system, atrial muscle, ventricular myocardium When stimulated, norepinephrine released Increases in heart rate shorten all phases of cardiac cycle 30

31 Anatomy Review Heart rate – Increases in heart rate shorten all phases of cardiac cycle – Electrolyte, hormone levels, medications, stress, anxiety, fear, body temperature can influence heart rate – Heart rate increases when body temperature increases, decreases when body temperature decreases 31

32 Heart as Pump Venous return – Most important factor determining amount of blood pumped out by heart is amount of blood flowing into right heart 32

33 Heart as Pump Cardiac output – Amount of blood pumped into the aorta each minute by heart – Defined as stroke volume x heart rate – Stroke volume determined by Preload Afterload 33

34 Heart as Pump Cardiac output – Frank–Starling’s law Greater the volume of blood in heart during diastole (preload), the more forceful cardiac contraction & more blood ventricle will pump (stroke volume) Important that heart adjust its pumping capacity in response to changes in venous return During exercise, heart muscle fibers stretch in response to increased volume (preload) before contracting 34

35 Heart as Pump Cardiac output – Frank–Starling’s law Factors that increase cardiac output include increased body metabolism, exercise, age & size of body Factors that may decrease cardiac output include shock, hypovolemia, heart failure 35

36 Conclusion Please complete the 10 question online exam and submit when completed. Thank You 36


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