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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 11.1 – 11.22 Seventh Edition Elaine.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 11.1 – 11.22 Seventh Edition Elaine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 11.1 – Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook

2 The Cardiovascular System Slide 11.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  A closed system of the heart and blood vessels  The heart pumps blood  Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body  The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products

3 The Heart Slide 11.2a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Location  Thorax between the lungs  Pointed apex directed toward left hip  About the size of your fist

4 The Heart Slide 11.2b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.1

5 The Heart: Coverings Slide 11.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Pericardium – a double serous membrane  Visceral pericardium  Next to heart  Parietal pericardium  Outside layer  Serous fluid fills the space between the layers of pericardium

6 The Heart: Heart Wall Slide 11.4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Three layers  Epicardium  Outside layer  This layer is the parietal pericardium  Connective tissue layer  Myocardium  Middle layer  Mostly cardiac muscle  Endocardium  Inner layer  Endothelium

7 External Heart Anatomy Slide 11.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.2a

8 The Heart: Chambers Slide 11.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Right and left side act as separate pumps  Four chambers  Atria  Receiving chambers  Right atrium  Left atrium  Ventricles  Discharging chambers  Right ventricle  Left ventricle

9 Blood Circulation Slide 11.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.3

10 The Heart: Valves Slide 11.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Allow blood to flow in only one direction  Four valves  Atrioventricular valves – between atria and ventricles  Bicuspid valve (left)  Tricuspid valve (right)  Semilunar valves between ventricle and artery  Pulmonary semilunar valve  Aortic semilunar valve

11 The Heart: Valves Slide 11.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Valves open as blood is pumped through  Held in place by chordae tendineae (“heart strings”)  Close to prevent backflow

12 Operation of Heart Valves Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.4

13 The Heart: Associated Great Vessels Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Aorta  Leaves left ventricle  Pulmonary arteries  Leave right ventricle  Vena cava  Enters right atrium  Pulmonary veins (four)  Enter left atrium

14 Coronary Circulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium  The heart has its own nourishing circulatory system  Coronary arteries  Cardiac veins  Blood empties into the right atrium via the coronary sinus

15 Warm Up How big is your heart? The size of your fist! What are the four chambers of the heart? Right and Left Atrium, right and left ventricle What are the three layers of the heart called? Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium How many major valves are there? Four

16 The Heart: Conduction System Slide 11.13a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Intrinsic conduction system (nodal system)  Heart muscle cells contract, without nerve impulses, in a regular, continuous way

17 The Heart: Conduction System Slide 11.13b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Special tissue sets the pace  Sinoatrial node  Pacemaker  Atrioventricular node  Atrioventricular bundle  Bundle branches  Purkinje fibers

18 Heart Contractions Slide 11.14a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Contraction is initiated by the sinoatrial node  Sequential stimulation occurs at other autorhythmic cells

19 Heart Contractions Slide 11.14b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.5

20 Filling of Heart Chambers – the Cardiac Cycle Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.6

21 The Heart: Cardiac Cycle Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Atria contract simultaneously  Atria relax, then ventricles contract  Systole = contraction  Diastole = relaxation

22 The Heart: Cardiac Cycle Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Cardiac cycle – events of one complete heart beat  Mid-to-late diastole – blood flows into ventricles  Ventricular systole – blood pressure builds before ventricle contracts, pushing out blood  Early diastole – atria finish re-filling, ventricular pressure is low

23 The Heart: Cardiac Output Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Cardiac output (CO)  Amount of blood pumped by each side of the heart in one minute  CO = (heart rate [HR]) x (stroke volume [SV])  Stroke volume  Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one contraction

24 Cardiac Output Regulation Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.7

25 The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Stroke volume usually remains relatively constant  Starling’s law of the heart – the more that the cardiac muscle is stretched, the stronger the contraction  Changing heart rate is the most common way to change cardiac output

26 The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Increased heart rate  Sympathetic nervous system  Crisis  Low blood pressure  Hormones  Epinephrine  Thyroxine  Exercise  Decreased blood volume

27 The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate Slide Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Decreased heart rate  Parasympathetic nervous system  High blood pressure or blood volume  Decreased venous return

28 Calculating Cardiac Output Heart Rate This maximum rate is based on the person's age. An estimate of a person's maximum age-related heart rate can be obtained by subtracting the person's age from % level: 185 x 0.70 = 130 bpm, and 85% level: 185 x 0.85 = 157 bpm


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