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The Anatomy of the Nervous System Why study Neuroanatomy?

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Presentation on theme: "The Anatomy of the Nervous System Why study Neuroanatomy?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Why study Neuroanatomy?

2 Major divisions of the nervous system

3 NervousSystem Central nervous nervous system system Peripheralnervoussystem Brain Spinalcord Somaticnervoussystem Autonomicnervoussystem Afferentnerves Afferentnerves Efferentnerves Efferentnerves Parasympathetic nervous system Sympathetic Sensory  CNS info CNS  Skeletal muscles muscles

4 Terminology CNSPNS Myelin- providing glia Oligodendrocytes Schwann Cells Clusters of cell bodies Nuclei (singular nucleus) Ganglia (singular ganglion) Bundles of axons TractsNerves

5 The spinal cord Ventral horn Cross section through the spinal cord

6 Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Divisions

7 Cranial Nerves I.Olfactory (smell) II.Optic (vision) III.Oculomotor (eye movement) IV.Trochlear (eye movement) V.Trigeminal (facial sensation and chewing) VI.Abducens (eye movement) VII.Facial (taste and facial expression) VIII.Auditory (hearing and balance) IX.Glossopharyngeal (taste, salivation swallowing) X.Vagus (abdominal organs, throat muscles) XI.Spinal accessory (neck, shoulders, head) XII.Hypoglossal (tongue)

8 The body-brain connection Radio Lab 2006 Radio Lab 2006 Where Am I? Where Am I? Mind and body are in constant communication (neuroscientists call this the brain-body loop), but the loop can get out-of-sync-- even broken. This hour: stories of people whose brains and bodies have lost each other. We begin with a century-old mystery: why do many amputees still feel their missing limbs? We speak with a neuroscientist who solved the problem with a magician's trick: an optical illusion. We continue with the story of a butcher who suddenly lost his entire sense of touch, and how, after many years, he managed to grow a new sense. And we hear from pilots who lose consciousness and suffer out-of-body experiences while flying fighter jets. Mind and body are in constant communication (neuroscientists call this the brain-body loop), but the loop can get out-of-sync-- even broken. This hour: stories of people whose brains and bodies have lost each other. We begin with a century-old mystery: why do many amputees still feel their missing limbs? We speak with a neuroscientist who solved the problem with a magician's trick: an optical illusion. We continue with the story of a butcher who suddenly lost his entire sense of touch, and how, after many years, he managed to grow a new sense. And we hear from pilots who lose consciousness and suffer out-of-body experiences while flying fighter jets. http://www.wnyc.org/shows/radiolab/episodes/2006/05/05

9 9 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Neuroanatomy cont.

10 10 Anatomical Directions Horizontal plane Sagittal plane Cross section Frontal plane RostralCaudal (coronal section) (midsagittal section)

11 11

12 12

13 13 The Five Major divisions of the Brain

14 14

15 15 Five Major divisions of the Brain 1. Telencephalon 2. Diencephalon 3. Mesencephalon 4. Metencephalon 5. Myelencephalon ] ] ] Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Brainstem

16 16 The Five Major divisions of the Brain

17 17 The Hindbrain Myelencephalon (medulla) Myelencephalon (medulla) Tracts Tracts Small nuclei Small nuclei Reticular formation (RT) Reticular formation (RT) Metencephalon Metencephalon Cerebellum (little brain) Cerebellum (little brain) Pons (bridge) Pons (bridge) Neural tracts Neural tracts

18 18 Mesencephalon - The Midbrain Tectum Superior collicui (visual relay) #2 Superior collicui (visual relay) #2 Inferior collicui (auditory relay) #3 Inferior collicui (auditory relay) #3

19 19 Mesencephalon - The Midbrain

20 20 Tegmentum RF & tracts of passage RF & tracts of passage Periaqueductal gray Periaqueductal gray Substantia nigra Substantia nigra Red nucleus Red nucleus Mesencephalon - The Midbrain

21 21 Periaqueductal gray - mediates the analgesic effects of opiate drugs. Periaqueductal gray - mediates the analgesic effects of opiate drugs. Substantia nigra (black substance) – neurons project to striatum; degenerate in PD. Substantia nigra (black substance) – neurons project to striatum; degenerate in PD. Red nucleus – motor pathways from cortex and cerebellum. Red nucleus – motor pathways from cortex and cerebellum. Mesencephalon - The Midbrain

22 22 Thalamus – large two- lobed structure; is the top of the brain stem. Contains many different nuclei, most of which project to the cortex Thalamus – large two- lobed structure; is the top of the brain stem. Contains many different nuclei, most of which project to the cortex Sensory relay nuclei Sensory relay nuclei Massa intermedia Massa intermedia White lamina White laminaDiencephalon

23 23 Hypothalamus – Below the anterior thalamus. Regulates several motivated behaviors. Hypothalamus – Below the anterior thalamus. Regulates several motivated behaviors. Pituitary gland Pituitary gland Optic chiasm Optic chiasm Mammillary bodies Mammillary bodies Other nuclei Other nuclei LH (lateral H.) LH (lateral H.) VMH (ventromedial H.) VMH (ventromedial H.)Diencephalon VMH LH

24 24 Hypothalamus (with other structures)

25 25 Cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex Major fissures Major fissures Major gyri Major gyri Four lobes Four lobes Limbic system Limbic system Basal ganglia Basal ganglia Cerebral commissures Cerebral commissuresTelencephalon

26 26 Cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex Major fissures Major fissures Lateral fissure Lateral fissure Central fissure Central fissure Longitudinal fissure Longitudinal fissureTelencephalon

27 27 Cerebral cortex Rat brain (Lissencephalic)Telencephalon

28 28 Cerebral cortex of human, chimpanzee and rat Telencephalon

29 29 Cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex Major fissures Major fissures Major gyri Major gyri Four lobe Four lobe Frontal Frontal Parietal Parietal Temporal Temporal Occipital OccipitalTelencephalon

30 30 90% of the cortex in Humans is neocortex, which has 6 distinct cell layers. As the name implies, Neo- cortex is a more recent development of brain evolution. 90% of the cortex in Humans is neocortex, which has 6 distinct cell layers. As the name implies, Neo- cortex is a more recent development of brain evolution.Telencephalon

31 31 Hippocampus – it is cortex, but not neo- cortex (it only has 3 layers). It is sometimes called Archicortex. Hippocampus – it is cortex, but not neo- cortex (it only has 3 layers). It is sometimes called Archicortex. Can you see the Sea Horse? Can you see the Sea Horse?Telencephalon

32 32 Limbic System Telencephalon – Subcortical parts Basal Ganglia

33 33 Hippocampus Hippocampus Amygdala Amygdala Fornix Fornix Septum Septum Cingulate cortex Cingulate cortex Mammilary bodies Mammilary bodies Telencephalon – Limbic system

34 34

35 35 Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Putamen Putamen Globus pallidus Globus pallidus Amygdala Amygdala Telencephalon – Basal Ganglia Substantia nigra Substantia nigra Subthalamic n. Subthalamic n. thalamus thalamus cortex cortex

36 36 Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Putamen Putamen Globus pallidus Globus pallidus Amygdala Amygdala Telencephalon – Basal Ganglia Substantia nigra Substantia nigra Subthalamic n. Subthalamic n. thalamus thalamus cortex cortex

37 37 Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Putamen Putamen Globus pallidus Globus pallidus Amygdala Amygdala Telencephalon – Basal Ganglia Substantia nigra Substantia nigra Subthalamic n. Subthalamic n. thalamus thalamus cortex cortex

38 38 Name the brain region 1. Mid-saggital 2. Cingulate 3. Corpus callosum 4. Pons 5. Temporal 6. Cerebellum 7. Parietal 8. Occipital 9. Frontal 10. Thalamus 11. Tegmentum 12. Tectum 13. Hypothalamus 14. Mammillary 15. bodies 1. Type of section? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

39 39 Memorize the chart on page 72

40 40 Dura mater (tough mother) outer membrane. Dura mater (tough mother) outer membrane. Arachnoid membrane (web-like) a thin membrane. Arachnoid membrane (web-like) a thin membrane. Subarachnoid space – contains large blood vessels and CSF. Subarachnoid space – contains large blood vessels and CSF. Pia mater (pious or gentle mother) adheres to the surface of the CNS. Pia mater (pious or gentle mother) adheres to the surface of the CNS.Meninges

41 41 Cerebral Ventricles Four large internal chambers of the brian. Cerebral Ventricles Four large internal chambers of the brian. Lateral ventricles, 3 rd ventricle, & 4 th ventricle. Lateral ventricles, 3 rd ventricle, & 4 th ventricle. Central canal – a small canal that runs the length of the spinal cord. Central canal – a small canal that runs the length of the spinal cord. Choroid plexuses are a network of capillaries that protrude into the ventricles and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Choroid plexuses are a network of capillaries that protrude into the ventricles and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Ventricles & CSF

42 42 Ventricles & CSF

43 43 Ventricles and Choroid Plexus

44 44

45 45 A.Lateral ventricles B.Third ventricle C.Cerebral aqueduct D.Fourth Ventricle E.Arachnoid villi F.Choroid plexus G.Choroid plexus H.Subarachnoid space

46 46 Protecting the Brain Physical protection Skull & Vertebrae Skull & Vertebrae Meninges Meninges Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Chemical protection Blood-brain barrier (BBB) Blood-brain barrier (BBB)

47 47 Blood-brain barrier Results from the special structure of cerebral blood vessels. Results from the special structure of cerebral blood vessels. Cells in the walls of cerebral blood vessels are tightly packed. Cells in the walls of cerebral blood vessels are tightly packed. This provides a barrier for the passage of some large-molecules and proteins into the brain. This provides a barrier for the passage of some large-molecules and proteins into the brain. Not all large molecules are impeded (e.g., glucose). Not all large molecules are impeded (e.g., glucose). Sex hormones readily pass through to certain brain areas where the BBB is weak. Sex hormones readily pass through to certain brain areas where the BBB is weak.

48 48 Neurons – cells specialized for the reception, conduction and transmission of electrochemical signals. Neurons – cells specialized for the reception, conduction and transmission of electrochemical signals. Glial cells – classic view - support cells that Glial cells – classic view - support cells that a) provide nutrients b) clear waste c) provide a physical matrix (glia means “glue”) But recent evidence suggests that they do even more… Two basic cells of the nervous system

49 49 Glial cells also – Participate in neurotransmission by sending signals to neurons and receiving signals from them. Participate in neurotransmission by sending signals to neurons and receiving signals from them. Control the establishment and maintenance of synapses Control the establishment and maintenance of synapses Form circuits and may contribute to synaptic plasticity. Form circuits and may contribute to synaptic plasticity. Two basic cells of the nervous system

50 50 Cell body (soma) Cell body (soma) Cell membrane Cell membrane Dendrites Dendrites Axon Axon Axon hillock Axon hillock Myelin Myelin Nodes of Ranvier Nodes of Ranvier Terminal boutons Terminal boutons Synapses Synapses External Anatomy of the Neuron

51 51 External Anatomy of the Neuron

52 52 Structural classes of Neurons Multipolar Multipolar Unipolar Unipolar Bipolar Bipolar Interneurons Interneurons

53 53 Structural Classes of Neurons

54 54 Types of Glial Cells Oligodendrocytes – myelinate axons of the CNS. Oligodendrocytes – myelinate axons of the CNS. Schwann Cells – myelinate axons of the PNS. Schwann Cells – myelinate axons of the PNS. Astrocytes – large star-shaped glia Astrocytes – large star-shaped glia Microglia – respond to injury Microglia – respond to injury

55 55 Suggested Websites for Chapter 3: Autonomic Nervous System: http://www.ndrf.org/ans.htm Autonomic Nervous System: http://www.ndrf.org/ans.htmhttp://www.ndrf.org/ans.htm The National Dysautonomia Research Foundation site; good overview of function and disorders like Shy-Drager Syndrome, Guillain Barre Syndrome, and more well-known disorders like diabetes and Parkinson's Disease. Neurons and Glia: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html Neurons and Glia: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.htmlhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html From Dr. Eric Chudler at the University of Washington; scroll down to "Neurons" to find information about neurons, glia, and a photo gallery of cells. Neuroanatomy Quiz: http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neural/struct3.html Neuroanatomy Quiz: http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neural/struct3.htmlhttp://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neural/struct3.html A quick quiz on the anatomy of the neuron; part of Dr John Krantz's study aids and tutorials for biopsychology. The Ventricles: http://www.epub.org.br/cm/n02/fundamentos/ventriculos_i.htm The Ventricles: http://www.epub.org.br/cm/n02/fundamentos/ventriculos_i.htmhttp://www.epub.org.br/cm/n02/fundamentos/ventriculos_i.htm From the Brain & Mind site; more information about ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid, and hydrocephalus. Interactive Brain Atlas: http://www9.biostr.washington.edu/da.html Interactive Brain Atlas: http://www9.biostr.washington.edu/da.htmlhttp://www9.biostr.washington.edu/da.html From the Digital Anatomist project at the University of Washington, select the “BRAIN” icon for a fabulous collection of images in many different planes of section, digital recreations of different functional systems in the brain, and a good section on cerebrovasculature. Brain Anatomy: http://www.thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_01/d_01_cr/d_01_cr_ana/d_01_cr_ana.html Brain Anatomy: http://www.thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_01/d_01_cr/d_01_cr_ana/d_01_cr_ana.html http://www.thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_01/d_01_cr/d_01_cr_ana/d_01_cr_ana.html From McGill University, a wonderful introduction to neuroanatomy, with different levels of complexity (beginner to advanced) and levels of organization (from social aspects to molecular aspects of neuroanatomy). From McGill University, a wonderful introduction to neuroanatomy, with different levels of complexity (beginner to advanced) and levels of organization (from social aspects to molecular aspects of neuroanatomy). Word Roots: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neuroroot.html Word Roots: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neuroroot.htmlhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neuroroot.html A good source for the Greek and Latin roots of many neuroanatomical terms.

56 56 NPR website: http://www.npr.org/ http://www.npr.org/ Search for “brain” Other Links Gray Matters, the brain radio program and its archives http://www.dana.org/books/archives/radiotv_archiveinde x.cfm Other Links Gray Matters, the brain radio program and its archives http://www.dana.org/books/archives/radiotv_archiveinde x.cfm http://www.dana.org/books/archives/radiotv_archiveinde x.cfm http://www.dana.org/books/archives/radiotv_archiveinde x.cfm Irvine Health Foundation Lecture series http://www.ihf.org/lecture/2004lectures.html Irvine Health Foundation Lecture series http://www.ihf.org/lecture/2004lectures.html http://www.ihf.org/lecture/2004lectures.html Infinite Mind http://www.lcmedia.com/mindprgm.htm Infinite Mind http://www.lcmedia.com/mindprgm.htmhttp://www.lcmedia.com/mindprgm.htm Biopsychology news http://www.biopsychology.com/ Biopsychology news http://www.biopsychology.com/http://www.biopsychology.com/ PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/ PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/

57 57 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/mind/


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