3 Major divisions of the nervous system BrainCentralnervoussystemSpinalcordAfferentnervesSensory CNSinfoNervousSystemSomaticnervoussystemCNS SkeletalmusclesEfferentnervesPeripheralnervoussystemAfferentnervesAutonomicnervoussystemParasympatheticnervous systemEfferentnervesSympatheticnervous system
4 Terminology CNS PNS Schwann Cells Clusters of cell bodies Nuclei Myelin-providing gliaOligodendrocytesSchwann CellsClusters of cell bodiesNuclei(singular nucleus)Ganglia(singular ganglion)Bundles of axonsTractsNerves
5 Cross section through the spinal cord Ventralhorn
8 The body-brain connection The body-brain connectionRadio Lab 2006Where Am I?Mind and body are in constant communication (neuroscientists call this the brain-body loop), but the loop can get out-of-sync-- even broken. This hour: stories of people whose brains and bodies have lost each other. We begin with a century-old mystery: why do many amputees still feel their missing limbs? We speak with a neuroscientist who solved the problem with a magician's trick: an optical illusion. We continue with the story of a butcher who suddenly lost his entire sense of touch, and how, after many years, he managed to grow a new sense. And we hear from pilots who lose consciousness and suffer out-of-body experiences while flying fighter jets.
9 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Neuroanatomy cont.
20 Mesencephalon - The Midbrain TegmentumRF & tracts of passagePeriaqueductal graySubstantia nigraRed nucleus
21 Mesencephalon - The Midbrain Periaqueductal gray - mediates the analgesic effects of opiate drugs.Substantia nigra (black substance) – neurons project to striatum; degenerate in PD.Red nucleus – motor pathways from cortex and cerebellum.
22 DiencephalonThalamus – large two-lobed structure; is the top of the brain stem. Contains many different nuclei, most of which project to the cortexSensory relay nucleiMassa intermediaWhite lamina
23 DiencephalonHypothalamus – Below the anterior thalamus. Regulates several motivated behaviors.Pituitary glandOptic chiasmMammillary bodiesOther nucleiLH (lateral H.)VMH (ventromedial H.)LHVMH
38 Name the brain region Mid-saggital Cingulate Corpus callosum Pons TemporalCerebellumParietalOccipitalFrontalThalamusTegmentumTectumHypothalamusMammillarybodies1. Type of section?18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.4.
40 Meninges Dura mater (tough mother) outer membrane. Arachnoid membrane (web-like) a thin membrane.Subarachnoid space – contains large blood vessels and CSF.Pia mater (pious or gentle mother) adheres to the surface of the CNS.
41 Ventricles & CSFCerebral Ventricles Four large internal chambers of the brian.Lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, & 4th ventricle.Central canal – a small canal that runs the length of the spinal cord.Choroid plexuses are a network of capillaries that protrude into the ventricles and produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
45 Lateral ventriclesThird ventricleCerebral aqueductFourth VentricleArachnoid villiChoroid plexusSubarachnoid space
46 Protecting the Brain Physical protection Chemical protection Skull & VertebraeMeningesCerebrospinal fluid (CSF)Chemical protectionBlood-brain barrier (BBB)
47 Blood-brain barrierResults from the special structure of cerebral blood vessels.Cells in the walls of cerebral blood vessels are tightly packed.This provides a barrier for the passage of some large-molecules and proteins into the brain.Not all large molecules are impeded (e.g., glucose).Sex hormones readily pass through to certain brain areas where the BBB is weak.
48 Two basic cells of the nervous system Neurons – cells specialized for the reception, conduction and transmission of electrochemical signals.Glial cells – classic view - support cells thata) provide nutrientsb) clear wastec) provide a physical matrix (glia means “glue”)But recent evidence suggests that they do even more…
49 Two basic cells of the nervous system Glial cells also –Participate in neurotransmission by sending signals to neurons and receiving signals from them.Control the establishment and maintenance of synapsesForm circuits and may contribute to synaptic plasticity.
50 External Anatomy of the Neuron Cell body (soma)Cell membraneDendritesAxonAxon hillockMyelinNodes of RanvierTerminal boutonsSynapses
54 Types of Glial Cells Oligodendrocytes – myelinate axons of the CNS. Schwann Cells – myelinate axons of the PNS.Astrocytes – large star-shaped gliaMicroglia – respond to injury
55 Suggested Websites for Chapter 3: Autonomic Nervous System:The National Dysautonomia Research Foundation site; good overview of function and disorders like Shy-Drager Syndrome, Guillain Barre Syndrome, and more well-known disorders like diabetes and Parkinson's Disease.Neurons and Glia:From Dr. Eric Chudler at the University of Washington; scroll down to "Neurons" to find information about neurons, glia, and a photo gallery of cells.Neuroanatomy Quiz:A quick quiz on the anatomy of the neuron; part of Dr John Krantz's study aids and tutorials for biopsychology.The Ventricles:From the Brain & Mind site; more information about ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid, and hydrocephalus.Interactive Brain Atlas:From the Digital Anatomist project at the University of Washington, select the “BRAIN” icon for a fabulous collection of images in many different planes of section, digital recreations of different functional systems in the brain, and a good section on cerebrovasculature.Brain Anatomy:From McGill University, a wonderful introduction to neuroanatomy, with different levels of complexity (beginner to advanced) and levels of organization (from social aspects to molecular aspects of neuroanatomy).Word Roots:A good source for the Greek and Latin roots of many neuroanatomical terms.
56 NPR website: http://www.npr.org/ Search for “brain”Other Links Gray Matters, the brain radio program and its archivesIrvine Health Foundation Lecture seriesInfinite MindBiopsychology newsPubMed