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I. Population Evolution Evolutionary Processes A. Definitions.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Population Evolution Evolutionary Processes A. Definitions."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. Population Evolution Evolutionary Processes A. Definitions

2 1. Population versus Specie 2. Gene Pool versus Gene Frequency 3. Homozygous versus Heterozygous 4. Alleles versus Genes

3 B. Mendel’s Principles

4 1. Conditions One gene = One trait and a fixed gene pool. First principle = Monohybrid heterozygous crosses yield what kind of phenotypic and genotypic ratios? 2. Application Second principle = Dihybrid heterozygous crosses yield what kind of phenotypic and genotypic ratios? Principle of Segregation Principle of Independent Assortment

5 Phenotypic Ratio Genotypic Ratio 3:1 1:2:1 Figure 14.5

6 Phenotypic Ratio 9:3:3:1 Genotypic Ratio 1:1:2:2:4:2:2:1:1 Figure 14.8

7 C. Hardy-Weinberg Principle

8 1. Conditions For the H-W principle to work: No Mutation, No Gene Flow, Large Population, Random Mating, and No Natural Selection 2. Application p = A & q = a AA = p 2, aa = q 2, and Aa = 2pq or 1 = p2 p2 + 2pq + q2q2 If p =.8% and q =.2% then p + q = 1

9 Figure 23.8

10 D. Microevolution

11 1. Trends a. Gene FlowImmigration and Emigration Figure 24.11

12 b. Genetic DriftBottleneck and Founder Effects Figure 23.10

13 c. Mutation =A random change in the DNAWhy or How? Figure 25.23

14 d. Non-random and Assortative mating Inbreeding vs. Sex Selection e. Natural Selection Trends Stabilizing vs. Directional vs. DiversifyingCauses? Figure 23.13

15 E. Extinction

16 1. Causes a. DistributionThe range needed for survival. b. Interactions c. Habitat Changes Who plays with whom? Events that could cause change? Natural versus Man-made

17 II. Species Formation A. Definition B. Speciation Mechanisms

18 1. Allopatric Figure 24.5

19

20

21 2. Sympatric Figure 24.11

22 3. Parapatric

23 4. Isolation Figure 24.3

24 C. Speciation Rates or Pace

25 1. Gradualistic Figure vs. 2. Punctuated

26 3. Mosaic Figure 25.26

27 III. Macroevolution A. Definitions B. Rate

28 Gradualistic vs. Punctuated Figure 24.17

29 C. Mechanisms

30 a. Exaptations Figure 34.30

31 b. Allometric Growth Figure 25.21

32 i. Heterochrony Figure 25.21

33 ii. Paedomorphosis Figure 25.22

34 It’s the daily grind that gets the goal.


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