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**How do we know if a population is evolving?**

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**When is a population not evolving?**

How do we know if a gene pool has changed? The Hardy-Weinberg Principle can help answer these questions.

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**The Hardy-Weinberg Principle states:**

Genetic equilibrium will be reached if the frequency of alleles remains stable generation after generation. Genetic equilibrium = no evolution occurring.

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**Hardy-Weinberg Principle**

Conditions necessary for genetic equilibrium are: No mutation occurs Immigration and emigration do not occur (population is isolated from other populations) - no gene flow. Population is very large Mating is totally random All individuals survive and reproduce equally (no natural selection)

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**Hardy-Weinberg Principle**

It is virtually impossible to meet these conditions. Allelic frequencies do change in populations, therefore evolution occurs. The main application of this principle is calculating allele and genotype frequencies in a population.

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**In a population, the sum frequency of alleles will equal 1.**

This can be expressed as: p + q = 1 Where: p = frequency of the dominant allele q = frequency of recessive allele

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**Hardy-Weinberg Equation**

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 Where: p2 = frequency of individuals homozygous for the dominant allele 2pq = frequency of heterozygous individuals q2 = frequency of individuals homozygous for the recessive allele

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Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

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