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Mendel’s Laws of HeredityWhy we look the way we look...
What is heredity? The passing on of characteristics (traits) from parents to offspring Genetics is the study of heredity
Mendel used peas... They reproduce sexuallyThey have two distinct, male and female, sex cells called gametes Their traits are easy to isolate
Mendel crossed them Fertilization - the uniting of male and female gametes Cross - combining gametes from parents with different traits
Questions What did Mendel cross? What are traits? What are gametes?What is fertilization? What is heredity? What is genetics?
What Did Mendel Find? He discovered different laws and rules that explain factors affecting heredity.
Rule of Unit Factors Each organism has two alleles for each traitAlleles - different forms of the same gene Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops
Rule of Dominance The trait that is observed in the offspring is the dominant trait (uppercase) The trait that disappears in the offspring is the recessive trait (lowercase)
Law of Segregation The two alleles for a trait must separate when gametes are formed A parent randomly passes only one allele for each trait to each offspring
Law of Independent AssortmentThe genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
Questions... How many alleles are there for each trait?What is an allele? How many alleles does a parent pass on to each offspring for each trait
Questions... What do we call the trait that is observed?What case (upper or lower) is it written in? What about the one that disappears? What case is it written in?
Phenotype & Genotype Phenotype - the way an organism looksred hair or brown hair genotype - the gene combination of an organism AA or Aa or aa
Heterozygous & HomozygousHeterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa) Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa)
Dihybrid vs MonohybridDihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits (AAEE with aaee) Monohybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in only one trait (AA with aa)
Questions... What is the phenotype? What is the genotype?What is homozygous? What is heterozygous? What is monohybrid crossing?
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