2 Solubility and Factors affecting solubility Solubility- the amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specific temp.ex: the solubility of sugar in water is 204 g/100 ml of water at 20oC.
3 Factors affecting the RATE OF DISSOLUTION (how fast is dissolves): 1) STIR (agitate)- Brings “fresh” solvent into contact with the solute increasing collisions between particles
4 2) HEAT - Increases the kinetic energy (particles start moving faster) of the solvent molecules causing more frequent collisions between the solvent and solute
5 3) Crush/GrindIt reduces the particle size and increases the surface area of the solute exposed to the solvent causing more frequent collisions between particles
6 General Solubility Rule “Like dissolves like”-solubility of a substance is related to the nature of the solvent.
7 The Solution Process water will dissolve salt “like dissolves like”- like refers to the polarity of the solute and solventPolar solvents will dissolve POLAR & IONIC soluteswater will dissolve salt water will dissolve sugarNonpolar solvents will dissolve NONPOLAR solutes gasoline will dissolve oil
8 The Solution Process miscible (soluble)- dissolves in all proportions ethanol is miscible in water because they are both polar
9 The Solution Process Immiscible (not soluble)- vegetable oil is immiscible in water.
10 The Solution Processoil will not dissolve in water because oil is nonpolar and water is polar
11 Activity 1: Place a Styrofoam cup in Beaker A. What happens? If beaker A contains water, what can you tell me about the substance Styrofoam?Now place the cup in Beaker B. What happens?Without me telling you what the liquid in Beaker B is, what do you already know about it?Draw and label a picture of this at the bottom of your notes.
12 Activity 2:Make a small oval shaped pile of shaving cream directly on your table. Spread out with your wood stick.Select 2-3 colors of food coloring and drop 5-6 drops in different locations on the pile.Using a coffee stirrer, MARBLE (don’t whip!) the food coloring through the shaving cream making a swirl pattern.
13 Write your name decoratively on an index card with Sharpie. Cellulose (in paper)Write your name decoratively on an index card with Sharpie.Dip the card into the shaving cream (name side down).Use a ruler to scrape off the shaving cream.