Presentation on theme: "MIXTURES AND DISSOLVING General Chemistry Unit 10."— Presentation transcript:
MIXTURES AND DISSOLVING General Chemistry Unit 10
TYPES OF MIXTURES Solution: homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase Two parts: solvent (greater amt) and solute Does not separate on standing Cannot be separated by filtration Many types of solutions (p. 81)
TYPES OF MIXURES Suspension: heterogeneous mixture that must be stirred to keep mixed Particles settle out Particles over 1000 nm Can be separated by filtration Not transparent
TYPES OF MIXTURES Colloid: heterogeneous mixture with particles of intermediate size Two parts : continuous and dispersed phases Particles do not settle out Particles between nm Can be separated by a semipermeable membrane but not normal filtration
CLASSES OF COLLOIDS Sol: solid in liquid (paint, mud) Gel: solid network in liquid (gelatin, pearls, opals) Emulsion: liquid in liquid or solid (milk, mayonnaise, cheese) Foam: gas in liquid or solid (whipped cream, marshmallow) Aerosol: liquid or solid in gas (fog, smoke, cloud, anything in spray can)
TYNDALL EFFECT Scattering of light by colloid particles Colloids/Sunset Demo (Journal)
THE SOLUTION PROCESS Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolving: Crushing or breaking up: increases the surface area exposed to the solvent Stirring or agitating the solution: brings fresh solvent into contact with the solute particles Heating: faster motion gives more collisions with more energy which helps separate particles from each other and disperse them in the solvent
SOLUBILITY There is a limit to how much solute can be dissolved in a certain amount of solvent. This limit is expressed as solubility (g/100 ml solvent). Solution equilibrium occurs when the rates of dissolving and crystallization are equal
SOLUTION CONDITIONS Saturated solution: contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute. Unsaturated solution: contains less than the maximum amount of dissolved solute. Supersaturated solution: contains more solute than a saturated solution under the same conditions. (Created from a saturated solution at a higher temperature that cools without forming crystals.)
SOLUTION TEST A solution at room temperature has no crystals in it. How can we know if it is saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated? TEST: Add more solute and observe the results. Crystal dissolves: unsaturated Crystal drops to bottom and remains unchanged: saturated Crystal drops to bottom and grows substantially: supersaturated
DISSOLVING IONIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER Dissolving in Water Hydration occurs between water and ionic solutes. The water molecules are attracted to the ions and draw them away from the surface of the crystal. The ions are surrounded by water molecules. New ions are exposed and the process repeats, resulting in the dissolving of the entire crystal.
SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERACTIONS Like Dissolves Like Polar solvents dissolve polar (or ionic) solutes. Nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes. Liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other are immiscible. Liquids that dissolve in each other are miscible.
DISSOLVING EFFECTS Pressure Only affects gas solubility Henrys Law: the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the liquids surface. Examples of Henrys Law: Carbonated beverages (bottled under pressure) The Bends experienced by divers (more gases dissolve in blood, when rising come out as bubbles and go to brain)
DISSOLVING EFFECTS Heats of Solution Energy change (heat absorbed or released) when dissolving takes place Solid in liquid: Usually endothermic, positive value, requires energy Sometimes exothermic, negative value, gives off energy Most become more soluble if temperature is raised Gas in liquid: Exothermic Becomes more soluble at lower temperatures – fish die in warm water (not enough oxygen)