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Animal Nutrition Chapter 41.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Nutrition Chapter 41."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Nutrition Chapter 41

2 Types of Consumers Heterotrophic animals get energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients from their diet

3 Homeostasis: balancing the energy “budget”

4 Maintaining a Balance of Blood Sugar
Recognize the negative feedback loop that control blood glucose levels If too high? If too low?

5 Diet must also provide Essential Nutrients
Essential Amino Acids How many? Why? Which ones?

6 Vitamins vs. Minerals What’s the difference?
Using Table 41.1, be able to link vitamins and minerals with cellular processes. Be the doctor! Case Studies for nutrient deficiencies




10 Feeding Types: Structure Meets Function
Explain the adaptations of: Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Explain the Adaptations of: Suspension feeders Substrate feeders Deposit-feeders Fluid-feeders Bulk-feeders

11 Feeding Adaptations

12 Mechanisms for food processing in animals
Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination FACT OR FICTION? When I’m really hungry I sometimes exclaim, “My stomach is digesting my leg!”

13 Comparative Anatomy Intracellular Digestion Extracellular digestion
What adaptations does a paramecium have to digest food? Extracellular digestion Biodiversity of structural adaptations gastrointestinal cavity vs. alimentary canal crop, gizzard, or stomach? intestines anus

14 Gastrovascular Cavity vs. Alimentary Canal

15 Comparative Digestive Anatomy

16 Human Digestion It is your responsibility to learn the sequence and function of primary and accessory digestive organs (see Fig 41.9). We will discuss these organs in relation to enzyme production and digestion

17 How does HCl aid in digestion?
Why are so many digestive enzymes secreted in an inactive form?

18 Digestive Enzymes: Could you describe how a Happy Meal is broken down?
Figure Fat digestion Nucleic acid digestion Protein digestion Fat (triglycerides) DNA, RNA Nucleotides Pancreatic nucleases Pancreatic lipase Glycerol, fatty acids, monoglycerides Nucleotidases Nucleosides Nucleosidases and phosphatases Nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Amino acids Dipeptidases, carboxy- peptidase, and aminopeptidase Small peptides Pancreatic carboxypeptidase Smaller polypeptides Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin Small polypeptides Proteins Pepsin Carbohydrate digestion Polysaccharides Disaccharides Salivary amylase polysaccharides Maltose Pancreatic amylases Disaccharidases Monosaccharides Small intestine (enzymes from epithelium) pancreas) Stomach Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus

19 Structure Meets Function
Absorption: Intestinal Villi, Lacteal Digestion associated with type of diet. The cecum (appendix)

20 Hormonal Control of Digestion Figure 41.19
3 Hormones: Gastrin-- stretch stimulates release, targets production of gastric juices Secretin--release of bicarbonate from pancreas CCK--release of bile from liver 1 2 3 Food Bile Liver Stomach Secretin and CCK Chyme Gastric juices Gastrin Gastric juices Gallbladder CCK Pancreas HCO3, enzymes Duodenum of small intestine Secretin CCK Key Stimulation Inhibition Figure 41.19

21 Nervous Control of Digestion Figure 41.21
Satiety center Enteric division control digestive organs Stimulation or suppression of hunger Role of genes in appetite and weight control? Ghrelin Insulin Leptin PYY Figure 41.21

22 Check out the unit and online review
Veins to heart Mouth Stomach Esophagus Lymphatic system Lipids Absorbed food (except lipids) Hepatic portal vein Absorbed water Liver Secretions from salivary glands from gastric Small intestine Secretions from liver Secretions from pancreas Rectum Anus Large intestine Figure 41.UN01 Figure 41.UN01 Summary figure, Concept 41.3 22

23 Check out the unit and online review
Figure 41.UN01 Summary figure, Concept 41.3 23

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