Presentation on theme: "Animal Nutrition Chapter 41 Types of Consumers Heterotrophic animals get energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients from their diet."— Presentation transcript:
Animal Nutrition Chapter 41
Types of Consumers Heterotrophic animals get energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients from their diet
Homeostasis: balancing the energy “ budget ”
Maintaining a Balance of Blood Sugar Recognize the negative feedback loop that control blood glucose levels If too high? If too low?
Diet must also provide Essential Nutrients Essential Amino Acids How many? Why? Which ones?
Vitamins vs. Minerals What ’ s the difference? Using Table 41.1, be able to link vitamins and minerals with cellular processes. Be the doctor! Case Studies for nutrient deficiencies
Feeding Types: Structure Meets Function Explain the adaptations of: Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Explain the Adaptations of: –Suspension feeders –Substrate feeders –Deposit-feeders –Fluid-feeders –Bulk-feeders
Mechanisms for food processing in animals Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination FACT OR FICTION? When I ’ m really hungry I sometimes exclaim, “ My stomach is digesting my leg! ”
Comparative Anatomy Intracellular Digestion –What adaptations does a paramecium have to digest food? Extracellular digestion –Biodiversity of structural adaptations –gastrointestinal cavity vs. alimentary canal –crop, gizzard, or stomach? –intestines –anus
Gastrovascular Cavity vs. Alimentary Canal
Comparative Digestive Anatomy
Human Digestion It is your responsibility to learn the sequence and function of primary and accessory digestive organs (see Fig 41.9). We will discuss these organs in relation to enzyme production and digestion
How does HCl aid in digestion? Why are so many digestive enzymes secreted in an inactive form?
Digestive Enzymes: Could you describe how a Happy Meal is broken down? Figure Fat digestionNucleic acid digestion Protein digestion Fat (triglycerides) DNA, RNA Nucleotides Pancreatic nucleases Pancreatic lipase Glycerol, fatty acids, monoglycerides Nucleotidases Nucleosides Nucleosidases and phosphatases Nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Amino acids Dipeptidases, carboxy- peptidase, and aminopeptidase Small peptides Pancreatic carboxypeptidase Smaller polypeptides Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin Small polypeptides Proteins Pepsin Carbohydrate digestion PolysaccharidesDisaccharides Salivary amylase Smaller polysaccharides Maltose Pancreatic amylases Disaccharides Disaccharidases Monosaccharides Small intestine (enzymes from epithelium) Small intestine (enzymes from pancreas) Stomach Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus
Structure Meets Function Absorption: Intestinal Villi, Lacteal Digestion associated with type of diet. The cecum (appendix)
Hormonal Control of Digestion 3 Hormones: –Gastrin-- stretch stimulates release, targets production of gastric juices –Secretin--release of bicarbonate from pancreas –CCK--release of bile from liver Figure Liver Gallbladder Food Stomach Duodenum of small intestine Gastric juices Pancreas Bile Chyme Gastrin CCK Key Stimulation Inhibition HCO 3 , enzymes CCK Secretin and CCK Gastric juices
Nervous Control of Digestion Figure Satiety center Ghrelin Insulin Leptin PYY Enteric division control digestive organs Stimulation or suppression of hunger Role of genes in appetite and weight control?
Check out the unit and online review Veins to heart MouthStomach Esophagus Lymphatic system Lipids Absorbed food (except lipids) Hepatic portal vein Absorbed water Liver Secretions from salivary glands Secretions from gastric glands Small intestine Secretions from liver Secretions from pancreas Rectum Anus Large intestine Figure 41.UN01