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 Nigeria, with a population of over 100 million people ( most populous country in Africa)  Known for exports of agricultural products including groundnut,

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Presentation on theme: " Nigeria, with a population of over 100 million people ( most populous country in Africa)  Known for exports of agricultural products including groundnut,"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Nigeria, with a population of over 100 million people ( most populous country in Africa)  Known for exports of agricultural products including groundnut, palm oil, cocoa, cotton, beans, timber, and hides and skins  during the oil boom period of the seventies Nigeria made headlines with her oil wealth, as the country is richly endowed with oil and natural gas resources capable of financing a number of important projects to meet basic consumption and development needs

3  One of the most corrupt countries in the world: ◦ succession of dictatorial regimes, disregard of human rights, political instability and economic mismanagement  Result: ◦ Stagnant economic growth and development potential ◦ With a per capita income of $340 Nigeria now ranks amongst the least developed countries in the World Bank league tables ◦ The Nigerian higher education system, once regarded as the best in sub-Saharan Africa, is in deep crisis ◦ Health services are inadequate ◦ Graduate unemployment is rising ◦ crime rate is rising

4  Definition of corruption-> misapplication of public resources to private ends  Supply determined (briber-initiated) model of corruption the size of the bribe, determined by the briber, is linked to the opportunity costs of time for the briber.  Demand determined (bribee-initiated) model of corruption, the public servant sets the price of corruption  Determinant of the size of the bribe; official may be influenced by a number of factors, ◦ Imperfect information on the part of the briber, family pressure, favouritism for a particular client and nepotism

5 Report of a Workshop for Civil Society Organisations involved in the fight against Corruption, organised by Zero Corruption Coalition, (ZCC) Lagos, December 11-12, 2008 Poor pay incentive  Poverty and Want more than half of the population earn less than $ per annum “Onye agu-u ka onye ala njo” A hungry man is an angry man :a person is not ready to obey any ethics or code of conduct before satisfying his hunger Culture and acceptance of corruption by the population  Culture of Gift-Giving when such a gift is meant to attract favour, the gift then becomes a means to an end and not an end in itself.

6  Enthronement of Mediocrity Nigerians(Under-qualified, unemployed)  connections with or are related to Nigerians in positions of authority for qualified candidates

7  Dual Loyalty and Patriotism of Nigerian Citizens: Colonization by the British/ the social contract theory  coming together various ethnic groups and different geo-political zones: ethnic identity in Nigeria  there is nothing wrong in embezzling federal government or state government funds (enrich themselves, their families, ethnic groups and the geo- political zone where they come from)

8  Colonial Mentality: inability / willingness to weld the British/local cultures together into one acceptable mode of behaviour  colonial mentality : warped mentality :  "Olu Oyibo“ being in the service of the European or foreigner or stranger  copying or aping the cultural behaviours and practices of their foreign colonizers(dishonest, fraudulent, and deceitful service and interactions)

9  Corruption among Nigeria NGOs, CBO, IBO Practitioners, And Donor Agencies To Their Organizations : do not care to audit their annual financial account …OR…look for Chartered Accountant-friends and relatives to audit the financial accounts of their organizations

10  Low deterrent- the punitive measures for corrupt practices need to be strengthened  Lack of access to public information. A lot of secrecy still pervades Government documents, and this underlies the need for the passage of the freedom of Information Bill presently before Nigeria’s National Assembly.  Insecurity of Informants

11  Corrupt Electoral system : Rigging of election and falsification of voters registers ; examination malpractices; false identity of candidates; manhandling;invigilators; destruction of scripts by arson; alteration of exam results

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13  Pre-Independence and the First Republic  Gowon Administration  Shagari Administration  Buhari Administration  Babangida Administration  Abacha Administration

14  Azikiwe was the first major political figure investigated for questionable practices.  In western Nigeria, politician Adegoke Adelabu was investigated following charges of political corruption leveled against him by the opposition.  In the Northern region, against the backdrop of corruption allegations leveled against some native authority officials in Bornu.

15 Gowon AdministrationShagari Administration  a corruption scandal surrounding the importation of cement engulfed his administration.  two major individuals from the middle belt of the country were accused of corruption.  the administration of Murtala Mohammed later went on and made reformist changes.  Mysterious fires.  investigations into the collapse of the defunct Johnson Mathey Bank of London.  a Rice shortage, led to accusations of corruption against the NPN government.

16 Buhari AdministrationBabangida Administration  In 1985, a cross section of political gladiators were convicted of different corrupt practices under the government of General Buhari.  The regime of general Babangida,actually is seen as the body that legalized corruption.

17 Abacha Administration  The death of the general Sani Abacha revealed the global nature of graft.  A Swiss banking commission report indicted Swiss banks.

18  In 2002, the case of Julius Makanjuola.  In 2003, the $214 million SAGEM/national ID card affair.  In May 2003, the improper payments case.  In 2003, the $180 million bribe.

19 President Olusegun Obasanjo:  declared anti-corruption as focus of government agenda  proceeded to pass the Corrupt Practices and other related Offences Act.  established the Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) in 2000

20  receive and investigate reports of corruption  in appropriate cases prosecute the offenders  examine, review and enforce the correction of corruption prone systems and procedures of public bodies  educate and enlighten the public on and against corruption and related offences

21  In the first 3 years, received 942 petitions, about 400 of the petitions were under investigation, and 60 were at various stages of prosecution  After 4 years, the ICPC had failed to make any major convictions. Mustapha Akbania, chairman of the ICPC complaint ICPC was: - underfunding - not empowered to investigate governors

22 The ICPC has prosecuted a number of prominent Nigerians:  Ghali Umar Na'Abba, speaker of the House of Representatives (2002)  Fabian Osuji, head of the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education (2006)  Cornelius Adebayo, head of the Federal Ministries of Communication and Transportation (2007)

23 The ICPC also started to work with other organization:  The Association of Certified Anti-Money Laundering Specialists (ACAMS)  United Nations Committee on Anti-Corruption (UNCAC)  Transparency International  the African Union (AU) Convention Against Corruption

24  According to the latest Corruption Perception Index published by Transparency International:  Nigeria ranked 134/178 Rank Country Index Nigeria


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