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Lord of the Flies By William Golding. Quick Write: What are some rules you follow that you don’t mind following? What are some rules you wouldn’t follow.

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Presentation on theme: "Lord of the Flies By William Golding. Quick Write: What are some rules you follow that you don’t mind following? What are some rules you wouldn’t follow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lord of the Flies By William Golding

2 Quick Write: What are some rules you follow that you don’t mind following? What are some rules you wouldn’t follow if there was no punishment? What is the point of these rules?

3 What does it mean to be civilized? What kind of things does a civilized person do? Say? Wear? Contrast someone who is civilized with someone who is not.

4 What makes good people do bad things?

5 How ingrained in us are society’s influences? For example: if the entire junior class were stranded on an island – there are no teachers, parents, cops or adults of any kind – how long would it take for society’s “rules” to fall away?

6 Why call it Lord of the Flies? The phrase “lord of the flies” is a translation of the Greek “Beelzebub,” a devil mentioned in the New Testament. In the Bible, Beelzebub sometimes seems to be Satan himself, and at other times seems to be Satan’s most powerful lieutenant.

7 Chapter 1: “The Sound of the Shell” Preview Deserted Island Emulating Adults The Pig The Key Players Ralph as Leader

8 Chapter 1 The Sound of the Shell

9 Deserted Island “No grownups!” (p.8) Vacation? What goes along with adults?  Rules  Do rules hold us down, or do they protect us? Clothes are also evidence of “civilization” CH 01 (p )

10 Emulating Adults “Let’s have a vote” (p. 22) The boys seem to want adults there – or at least something resembling adults: a leader Jack wants to be treated as an adult – referred to by last name, be in charge – but compare that with how he treats Piggy CH 01 (p )

11 The Pig “I was choosing a place. Next time–!” (p. 31) It’s a big step to kill something Jack doesn’t want to be thought of as a coward His old society – run by adults – still has influence over him. For how long? CH 01 (p )

12 The Key Players Pay attention to how these boys relate to each other Ralph – one of the oldest and tallest, so he is chosen as leader. He is the one who blew on the conch and began the first meeting. Piggy – He’s fat, asthmatic, and has bad eyesight; but he is definitely the smartest. Jack – leader of the choir (his hunters). He wants to be chief and is upset when Ralph is elected. He’s bossy, mean, and power hungry. Simon – he sees things differently CH 01 (p )

13 Ralph as Leader “I’m chief then” (p. 23) He has done some good things But how has he treated Piggy? He may be the leader, but he is still very childlike. CH 01 (p )

14 Chapter 2: “The Fire on the Mountain” Preview Two Goals The Conch Piggy’s Glasses The Beast The Fire

15 Chapter 2 Fire on the Mountain

16 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters Compare/contrast Ralph and Piggy. Compare/contrast Ralph and Jack. How is Piggy’s point of view different from that of the rest of the boys?

17 Two Goals “We want to have fun. And we want to be rescued” (p. 37) Notice which goal came first. Do these sound like adult goals? CH 02 (p )

18 The Conch “Where the conch is, that’s a meeting” (p. 42) The conch is a symbol for order The first rule: only the person with the conch can speak  How good are the boys at following this one rule?  Do they try to change this rule? CH 02 (p )

19 Piggy’s Glasses “His specs – use them as burning glasses!” (p. 40) Why are the glasses so important?  Glasses  fire  rescue Piggy is the smartest (the most enlightened) Wisdom and intelligence change the way things look So why isn’t Piggy the leader?  No charisma, no respect CH 02 (p )

20 The Beast “But there isn’t a beast!” (p. 37) Now, not everything is fun and games on the island Whether the beast is real or imaginary, the younger kids’ fear is real  Have you ever tried to convince a young kid that there’s no monster under his bed? CH 02 (p )

21 The Fire “You got your small fire all right” (p. 44) The fire spreads quickly – too quickly It seems someone died in the fire… Fire is fun – building shelters isn’t Who caused the problem?  The fire?  The beast?  The boys? CH 02 (p )

22 Chapter 3: “Huts on the Beach” Preview Priorities Ralph Jack Simon  How is like Jesus? Nature

23 Chapter 3 Huts on the Beach

24 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters Describe Simon and his behavior. Why does Simon go up the mountain?

25 Priorities “We want meat” (p. 31) “We need shelters” (p. 52) Who cares about meat? About shelters? Notice how the boys can be looking at the same thing but seeing something totally different. CH 03 (p )

26 Ralph “People don’t help much” (p. 54) It doesn’t take long to learn that human beings aren’t very easy to control What would help? (What helps us?)  Reward/punishment system? CH 03 (p )

27 Jack “He tried to convey the compulsion to track down and kill that was swallowing him up” (p. 51) Jack seems to be trying to kill a pig to prove himself, maybe to prove his manhood. CH 03 (p )

28 Simon “He’s queer. He’s funny” (p. 55) Simon is a possible Christ figure or saint  Works as a carpenter (while others are playing)  Helps the younger ones get food How many of them? “endless, outstretched hands” "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these." CH 03 (p )

29 Simon (continued)  Goes by himself into the jungle where he listens to/looks at nature Didn’t Jesus go into the wilderness to fast? Didn’t he encounter the Devil there…? Ralph’s comment above lets us know that Simon is distinct from the other boys. The others have some offensive traits; Simon has none.

30 Nature “But you can feel as if you’re not hunting, but – being hunted” (p. 53) The jungle is neutral, overall. It is described in terms of the boy at the moment.  Jack: approaches nature as ravager, hunter. He is affected by his own sinister attitude toward nature.  Simon: contrast Jack’s experience with the honey-colored sunlight; the butterflies; and the bright, fantastic birds of Simon’s jungle. The place is the same; but the author, by his choice of adjectives, tells us a great deal about his characters. CH 03 (p )

31 Chapter 4: “Painted Faces and Long Hair” Preview Civilization’s Restraints Evil Tendencies Masks Littluns Pig Dance New Bonds

32 Chapter 4: “Painted Faces and Long Hair”

33 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters What things do people do because those things are expected of them? What things do people avoid doing (or avoid talking about) because those things are socially unacceptable?

34 Civilization’s Restraints “Roger’s arm was conditioned by a civilization that knew nothing of him and was in ruins” (p. 62) Roger is careful not to hit the littlun (Henry) because he has been so conditioned by his society.  Also, Maurice felt bad for knocking sand in Percival’s eyes  And Jack apologized for letting the fire go out – but not for breaking Piggy’s glasses. How long will the old taboos affect them? CH 04 (p )

35 Evil Tendencies “He became absorbed beyond mere happiness as he felt himself exercising control over living things” (p. 61) Henry wants to exert power over other living things  Jack gets a similar pleasure in killing the pig  How about grownups? Golding is saying that this potential for evil is innate (we’re all born with it). CH 04 (p )

36 Masks “He looked in astonishment, no longer at himself but at an awesome stranger” (p. 63) Why do people wear masks? Masks give us freedom, a kind of removal or anonymity. It is no longer Jack doing horrific deeds, but it is a savage. CH 04 (p )

37 Littluns “They obeyed the summons of the conch, partly because Ralph blew it... and partly because they enjoyed the entertainment of the assemblies” (p. 59) Littluns = the unthinking masses who need caring for ½ the boys (of us?) are like this. We can learn from how characters treat them  Simon  Roger CH 04 (p )

38 Pig Dance “Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in” (p.75) A primitive-like ritual – what significance does it have? Boys + masks + paint + killing + dancing + chanting = savages CH 04 (p )

39 New Bonds “That was a dirty trick” (p. 72) Jack’s negligence toward the fire and his treatment of Piggy result in a new alliance Ralph (common sense/leadership) and Piggy (intelligence). CH 04 (p )

40 Chapter 5: “Beast from Water” Preview Appearance vs. Reality Intelligence Fear Receding Influences The Beast A Sign

41 Chapter 5 “Beast from Water”

42 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 80, Ralph talks about being “taken short.” What does that mean? What are the littluns doing? What’s so bad about that? On p. 81, Ralph says they should have smoke or die. Is there anything you feel that way about (that you’d die before you let it happen)? What does it show you about the importance of smoke for Ralph?

43 On p. 91, Ralph says they have to follow the rules because that’s all they have. Why do you follow some rules? Why do you not follow some rules? On p. 94, Ralph wishes there was a grownup there. What have grownups given you? Where would you be without them?

44 Appearance vs. Reality “If faces were different when lit from above or below – what was a face? What was anything?” (p. 78) Notice how things look differently at nighttime as opposed to daytime. A little light (intelligence) can completely change one’s outlook on a situation CH 05 (p )

45 Intelligence “Only, decided Ralph as he faced the chief’s seat, I can’t think. Not like Piggy” (p. 78) Ralph now fully realizes that a good leader must have intelligence. Leadership (Ralph) and intelligence (Piggy) are naturally drawn together as a defense against a purely instinctive way of life (Jack). CH 05 (p )

46 Fear “Things are breaking up. I don’t understand why. We began well; we were happy. And then–” (p. 82) Different approaches taken toward coping with fear tell us a lot about the different boys. Ralph: vote the beast out of existence Piggy: life is scientific, and there can’t be beasts in our advanced world Jack: command the boys to put up with the fear. One of the littluns suggests that the beast comes from the sea (the gigantic unknown). CH 05 (p )

47 Receding Influences “Percival Wemys Madison. The Vicarage, Harcourt St. Anthony, Hants, telephone, telephone, tele–” (p. 86) What is this?  Name, address, phone number In most circumstances, saying this would work because most people would try to get in contact with his parents.  Notice that he’s starting to forget it! Think about the meetings, which are also echoes of society. This meeting was chaotic and disbanded. Society’s influence is weakening now. CH 05 (p )

48 The Beast “What I mean is... maybe it’s only us” (p. 89) According to Golding, Simon’s conclusion is the correct one:  Evil exists in everyone, and society (rules and order) helps to keep it in check. But what happens when rules and order aren’t followed? CH 05 (p )

49 More about Simon as a Christ Figure? What did he tell the boys about the Beast?  The truth Jesus: “I am the way, the truth, and the life.” Jesus: “The truth shall set you free.”  Could you say knowing the truth about the beast (that there isn’t one out there) would free the boys from their fear of it?

50 Simon as Christ (cont.) How did Simon treat Piggy in the previous chapter?  Gave him some of the roast pig to eat. Feeding the hungry.  Defended Piggy. Associating with outcasts.  Gave Piggy his glasses. Restoring sight to the blind.

51 A Sign “If only they could send us something grownup... a sign or something” (p. 94) Ralph wants a message, or a sign, from the outside world, the world of adults. Remember that. CH 05 (p )

52 Chapter 6: “Beast from Air” Preview The Sign Appearance vs. Reality Politics Castle Rock The Beast Dissention

53 Chapter 6 “Beast from Air”

54 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 97, what does “waxy” mean? Whom are the boys talking about first? How do you know? Whom are they talking about next? How do you know? On p , why do the boys think the beast lives on what they come to call Castle Rock?

55 On p , who decides to go first to look for the beast on Castle Rock? Why does he do that, and what does that show us about him? On p. 106, who else decides to look for the beast on Castle Rock? Why does he do that, and what does that show us about him?

56 On p. 108, what does Ralph get upset about the other boys doing? Why does that bother him so much? On p. 108, read the last two sentences again. These are very important. Why do you think the author included these details?

57 The Sign “But a sign came down from the world of grownups, though at the time there was no child awake to read it” (p. 95) Is this a positive sign?  There are people in the immediate area  The world they look to for help is at war CH 06 (p )

58 Appearance vs. Reality “We saw the beast–” (p. 99) What did they really see?  A large shadow What did they really hear?  The parachute flapping in the wind Their imaginations fill in the rest. If they only had some light (both real light and intelligence) and the ability to distinguish appearance and reality! CH 06 (p )

59 Politics “It’s time some people knew they’ve got to keep quiet and leave deciding things to the rest of us” (p. 102) Jack denies the democratic process  He wants a strict division between the ruler and the ruled, between those who make decisions and those who must accept decisions. Ralph, on the other hand, wants to to keep harmony among the group  So he takes command and, leaving the littluns in Piggy’s care, goes with a party in search of the beast. CH 06 (p )

60 Castle Rock “This would make a wizard fort” (p. 108) Jack is impressed with the possibilities this jutting rock has as a fort  What’s the purpose of a fort?  Armies use them for protection. Ralph sees it as a “rotten place.” This place will be important later CH 06 (p )

61 The Beast “However Simon thought of the beast, there rose before his inward sight the picture of a human at once heroic and sick” (p. 103) Two sides to humanity are seen in these boys Heroic side  Ralph’s faith in man’s power to survive and remain civilized  Simon’s love for the littluns. Evil side  Jack  The way most kids treat Piggy CH 06 (p )

62 Dissention “Mutinously, the boys fell silent or muttering” (p. 108) The chapter’s concluding words leave us with some doubt as to Ralph’s or Simon’s effectiveness in holding sway over the less noble characters. When ordered to leave the new fortress and to restart the signal fire, the boys grumble mutinously and obey begrudgingly.  Notice who leads the “mutinous” boys at the very end of the chapter… CH 06 (p )

63 Chapter 7: “Shadows and Tall Trees” Preview Civilization Appearances The Thrill of the Hunt Savagery The Beast

64 Chapter 7 “Shadows and Tall Trees”

65 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters From p. 109 through the first full paragraph on 110, what are the signs that Ralph is becoming “uncivilized”? How does he seem to feel about this? Reread the big paragraph on p.110 and then the one that goes onto p Describe how Ralph feels different on the different sides of the island. What makes him feel different? What do you think is the author’s reason for including this?

66 On p. 111, what is it Simon says to Ralph alone? What is it he doesn’t say? On p. 112, read the details of Ralph’s daydream. What is the overall feeling of his daydream? What was he able to avoid – at least according to his daydreams? What’s the point?

67 Read the “pig dance” part again from the middle of 114 where Jack says “Make a ring” to the middle of 115. What does this remind you of? What’s with wanting a drum and fire? What do you think about Jack’s comment at the end?

68 On p.119, the last three paragraphs and then a couple paragraphs onto the next page contain dialogue between Jack and Ralph. What are they talking about? What’s really going on, or what’s the point?

69 Civilization “He would like to have a pair of scissors and cut his hair” (p. 109) Many changes (physical and behavioral) in the boys; Most notably: long hair and only remnants of clothes. These suggest a decrease in society’s influence on the boys. The problem is that the boys are coming to accept this degraded state of appearance and hygiene as normal. Symbolism: As the indications of society (clothes, hygiene) disappear, the influences of society also decline. CH 07 (p )

70 Appearances “Here, on the other side of the island, the view was utterly different” (p. 110) It’s the same ocean, but the water looks different here. On this side: the infinite size of the body of water represents an insurmountable force; one feels condemned On the lagoon (civilized) side: the water is calm; one can dream of rescue CH 07 (p )

71 The Thrill of the Hunt “I hit him! The spear stuck in–” (p. 113) Perhaps hunting is good after all Ralph also joins in the ritual pig dance as all the boys shout to kill the victim Golding’s point is that every individual has the seeds of violence and the urge to kill within him But there is some hope for Ralph. From his dreams we get a glimpse of what he really wants  home, England, baths, his father, books Jack wants none of these things; he wants only blood. CH 07 (p )

72 Savagery “Use a littlun” (p. 115) Robert is held down while the others get carried away and actually do hurt him. Then Jack mentions another possibility. He suggests they use a littlun as a victim, and everyone laughs in approval. But the reader who has witnessed a steady rise in the savagery knows human sacrifice actually may occur CH 07 (p )

73 The Beast “I’m going up the mountain” (p. 119) Usually when someone on a quest climbs a mountain, he or she is on a search for enlightenment. See next slide for examples. CH 07 (p )

74

75 The Beast (continued) But the boys delayed until the light was poor, so they don’t see the truth; they found only more illusion to be afraid of. Also, notice the area through which the boys have to travel to get to the top of the mountain – the burned area of their first irresponsibility. They are approaching what they think is the source of the evil on this island (the beast), and they are bothered and blinded by the results of a real source of evil (their own irresponsibility) CH 07 (p )

76 Chapter 8: “Gift for the Darkness” Preview Imagination Impeachment The Lord of the Flies Jack Evil

77 Chapter 8 “Gift for the Darkness”

78 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p.127, Jack says, “I’m not going to play any longer. Not with you.” What does that sound like in your experience? Who says that sort of thing, and when? Why does the author include this detail? On p. 128 (very bottom), Simon asks, “What else is there to do?” meaning besides going back up the mountain. So, what else is there to do?

79 On p. 130, Piggy voluntarily lights the fire for the first time. Why is it different this time?

80 This is going to be a bit awkward, but the essay at the end of the book talks about this as well, so I’m not making this up. On p. 135, in the second full paragraph, there is a lot of sexual imagery (or rape imagery) used as the boys kill the pig. Read through that part again and jot down some of the words and phrases that stand out when you read it looking for those. Why do you think the author would write about killing in that way?

81 On the top half of p. 136, what is Jack’s plan? What are his goals? On the bottom of p. 136, what do they do with the pig’s head? Why? Who does/did that sort of thing? On p. 140, why do you think Jack is described as being almost naked? Why do you think he tells Ralph’s group that he might let them join him, but he might not?

82 On p , what does it show when Ralph keeps forgetting what he’s talking about? On p. 144, the beast says something that sounds a lot like what Bill said about joining Jack just above the middle of p What is the similar term used, and why does the beast speak so much like them when they’re talking about joining Jack? What does the beast add about what will happen to Simon?

83 Imagination “The beast had teeth...and big black eyes” (p. 125) No one has really seen what they think is the beast. Sometimes partial knowledge of something is more dangerous than no knowledge of it at all. Sometimes what you can imagine is way worse than reality. CH 08 (p )

84 Impeachment “I’m not going to play any longer. Not with you” (p. 127) Jack tries to overthrow Ralph and replace him as the leader. When no one supports Jack, he’s embarrassed and runs away  He says he’s not going to play with Ralph any longer.  This sounds funny to us  Golding is reminding us that all these terrible things are happening and are being caused by children! Also, notice that when Jack blows the conch he does so incompetently.  This is symbolic of his lack of leadership ability. CH 08 (p )

85 Lord of the Flies “Sharpen a stick at both ends” (p. 136) Jack chops the pig’s head off and puts it onto this stick, which is stuck in the ground. This is a gift (sacrifice) for the beast. Don’t confuse what the kids think is the beast (the dead parachutist) with the actual symbol of the beast (the pig’s head – the Lord of the Flies). The boys, with the exception of Simon, are confused about that. They do not realize that the beast on the mountain, supposedly an external force of evil, is nothing to be feared, whereas what the sow’s head on a stick represents, humanity’s internal wickedness, is the true horror. Lord of the Flies (Beelzebub) is another name for Satan. CH 08 (p )

86 Jack “ The Chief has spoken” (p. 141) Jack raids Ralph’s tribe  invite them to a pig feast  also to steal fire and to tempt more of the boys to join him. Notice that he is wearing his mask and is basically wearing nothing reminiscent of civilization. Also notice that it is stormy during the raid; nature is reflecting what’s happening to society. Jack seems to love his newfound power. He forces two others to raise their spears and say, “The chief has spoken.” Now Jack has fire, once a symbol of home and rescue, comfort, and hope. It is now in the hands of the enemy and can become a destructive, not a productive, force. CH 08 (p )

87 Evil “Fancy thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill!” (p. 143) Whether Simon actually talks with the pig’s head or whether it’s all in Simon’s mind is irrelevant. The Lord of the Flies says that he is part of Simon; moreover, that Simon realizes this truth. The evil is within man, not an external thing. Then the beast tempts him by assuring him they are going to have fun on the island, but Simon knows this will lead only to trouble. This knowledge Simon acquires about evil overpowers him and he faints. CH 08 (p )

88 Chapter 9: “A View to a Death” Preview Simon the Prophet Nature Mimics Society Jack the Dictator Simon the Savior No Evidence

89 Chapter 9 “A View to a Death”

90 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 146 (the end of the first full paragraph), Simon is described as walking like an old man. And again on p. 147 (just before the break), he’s described in similar terms. What do we usually associate with someone who’s old? How is that different from what we associate with someone who’s young? How is Simon like an old man now?

91 On the very top of p. 149, how is Jack described? What is surrounding him? What do you think is the author’s point? Many times through this chapter, and again at the very bottom of p. 150, the author tells us that a storm is coming. What are some terms that describe a thunderstorm? Do those also describe Jack? Is nature mimicking what is happening between the boys? That is, how are they similar?

92 On the top of p. 151, Ralph claims the conch still counts up here. How does Jack respond? What does it seem is Jack’s belief about who is the real chief? On p , what did Simon come here to tell the rest of the boys? How do they respond? How does this play into the idea of Simon being a Christ figure?

93 Simon the Prophet “What else is there to do?” (p. 145) Simon’s first impulse is to let the others know what he has learned. Saint/prophet figure brings truth – here, the facts about the beast (or good and evil). Golding said he included this saint-like figure in the novel because this type exists in society, and they commonly are not trusted (or are attacked). Golding describes him walking like an old man (146).  Old men are usually wise; children are usually carefree.  He’s like an old man because he now understands.  He knows about sin, the nature of evil. CH 09 (p )

94 Nature Mimics Society “The conch doesn’t count at this end of the island–” (p. 150) When Jack denies the value of the conch (symbolizing order), the detail that follows tells us of his error: the thunder strikes. As the boys dance, flashes of lightning stripe the black sky. A violent storm rages as Simon enters the circle. What could the storm represent? Not recognizing Simon could be interpreted as the boys not recognizing the truth he has come to tell them – that there is no beast to fear but themselves. CH 09 (p )

95 Jack the Dictator “Jack, painted and garlanded, sat there like an idol” (p. 149) Jack is a dictator and is described as an idol. Idols are worshipped, not elected.  Ralph was elected democratically and made decisions based on the good of all  Jack is self-appointed and makes his decisions based on what he alone wants. There is never any doubt that he is the leader. Even when Ralph and Piggy show up, Jack declared that the conch counts for nothing here. CH 09 (p )

96 Simon the Savior “[Simon’s] blood was staining the sand” (p. 153) Simon alone knows the truth about the nature of evil. He desperately wants to enlighten the others and rescue them from their fear. The analogy between Simon and Christ is clear – Simon, as Christ, came to save man and was rejected and killed. Also, Simon released the parachutist from his confinement as he tried to release the boys from theirs. Plus, think about the storm that is raging during Simon’s slaughter. This storm is very reminiscent of the thundering skies and quaking earth that attended Christ’s death. CH 09 (p )

97 No Evidence “Simon’s dead body moved out toward the open sea” (p. 154) Both Simon’s body and the dead parachutist’s are swept away into the ocean. How and why is this significant?  Parachutist – none of the boys knows what it really was. They’re still frightened about the presence of a beast. They’ll think it’s still hiding somewhere on the island.  Simon – the evidence of the atrocity and their violence is gone. Out of sight, out of mind! Was the beast at the fire/dance/feast?  In a way: The beast is inside all of the boys – all humans! CH 09 (p )

98 Chapter 10: “The Shell and the Glasses” Preview Reds Absolute Power… Piggy Ralph Jack Things Falling Apart

99 Chapter 10 “The Shell and the Glasses”

100 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p (very top of 158), what do Ralph and Piggy say concerning their role in Simon’s death? [Jot down an abbreviated form of their conversation.] On p. 160, why does Jack refuse to allow the other boys to believe they killed the beast already?

101 On p. 161, what does Jack plan to do in order to enable his followers to have another feast? On p. 159, what has been happening to Wilfred? What is going to happen to Wilfred? What did Wilfred do to deserve this?

102 On p. 162, what’s that about the Reds, and who are they better than? On the top of p. 165, what is the sign that things are falling apart on the island? What’s so different about this from before?

103 Reds “We might get taken prisoner by the Reds… They’d be better than–” (p. 162) Reds = Communists. Communists were hated and feared above all (for Americans and English) during this time. The boys fear Jack even more than they fear Communists! CH 10 (p )

104 Absolute Power… “He’s going to beat Wilfred” (p. 159) The signs of Jack’s new power come quickly. He decides that they ought to keep on the good side of the beast by giving it part of their kill after each hunt.  He has basically set up a primitive religion based on fear and controlled by force. His first official act is to have a boy named Wilfred tied up and beaten for a reason no one can fathom. CH 10 (p )

105 Piggy “We got to forget this. We can’t do no good thinking about it” (p. 157) Piggy is in denial and refuses to accept any responsibility for Simon’s death. In fact, he insists that the incident was an accident and suggests that the boys forget all about it.  What happens if people forget history? It repeats itself.  Many people say that it repeats itself anyway, but it’s worse if we don’t learn from it. CH 10 (p )

106 Ralph “Don’t you understand, Piggy? The things we did–” (p. 157) Ralph won’t accept Piggy’s denial of what happened. He’s prepared to accept the guilt. We know that at least Ralph is approaching the knowledge that Simon died to bring them. Ralph recognizes the source of sin or evil and it frightens him. To dramatically highlight Ralph’s discovery, Golding has him shudder at any physical contact with his fellow humans. Piggy lays a hand on Ralph to comfort him, but Ralph shrinks away from the touch of human flesh on his bare shoulder. CH 10 (p )

107 Jack “No! How could we–kill–it?” (p. 160) Unlike Ralph, Jack refuses to admit anything about the previous night’s activities except that they had a run-in with the beast.  Of course, the beast (evil) was present during their ritual dance and kill. The beast within them led to the murder of the one who had come to free them from the false beast.  Jack is right when he claims that the beast came in disguise, but mistaken in his belief that the disguise was the form of Simon. Jack refuses to allow the other hunters to believe that they killed the beast. His denial that the beast is dead may show that he realizes Simon, not some beast, was killed  or it may arise from his need of the tribe’s fear of the beast to bind them to him for protection. CH 10 (p )

108 Things Falling Apart “Well – what is the good?” (p. 163) Symbolically, we know things are breaking up when during the night the inseparable twins are seen fighting one another. The confusion at the chapter’s end when Jack and his marauders attack Ralph’s shelters culminates in the loss of Piggy’s glasses. Jack has stolen the remaining lens to make fires to cook his pigs, but, to Ralph and the others, he has practically stolen their only hope.  For Ralph, the signal fire has been the one symbol of hope, a remote connection with a better world. But now the task of maintaining the fire is nearly impossible. CH 10 (p )

109 Chapter 11: “Castle Rock” Preview Appearances Hope Reasoning with the Enemy The End of Civilization Terror and Helplessness

110 Chapter 11 “Castle Rock”

111 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters On p. 171, what reason does Piggy say he will not give Jack for the return of his glasses? What reason does he say he will give? On p , what does Ralph say their appearance will be when they approach Jack? Specifically, what will they do? What will they not do? What’s the point?

112 On the bottom of p. 175, what does Roger do to the twins – something we’ve seen him do before? What sign is there that this won’t stop here? On the top of p. 177, in the 2 nd bigger paragraph, how are Ralph and Jack fighting – what are they careful to avoid?

113 On the top of p. 180, what is Roger doing during Piggy’s plea for a return to decency? On the middle of p. 181, what does Jack say right after Piggy’s death? Do you believe him?

114 On p. 182, reread the last paragraph. What do you think that last sentence means? So who is the most evil boy on the island now? What would life be like without any rules?

115 Appearances “We could smarten up a bit and then go–” (p. 170) Ralph and Piggy want to clean up and then go talk to Jack and his hunters.  They hope that Jack and the hunters will remember what they’re supposed to be – humans. Sam and Eric want to paint their faces so that they can try to counter-intimidate the hunters.  Sam says, “He’ll be painted… You know how he’ll be–” (171).  They realize that the savages are frightening.  Ralph and Piggy realize that this would be stooping to the level of the savage hunters and decide against it, but they do take spears – just in case. CH 11 (p )

116 Hope “Dimly [Ralph] remembered something Simon had said to him once, by the rocks” (p. 172) What was it that Simon told Ralph? That he was pretty sure that Ralph would make it off the island. We now know that neither Piggy nor Simon is making it off alive, and judging by the way things are going, Simon might’ve been wrong about Ralph. CH 11 (p )

117 Reasoning with the Enemy “First you’ve got to give back Piggy’s specs…. You aren’t playing the game–” (p. 177) Ralph and Piggy think that Jack and the hunters can be reasoned with; besides, what’s happening on the island doesn’t sound much like a game to me. Most rational people expect others to think rationally like they do. Unfortunately, reason is quite often something one cannot count on. Piggy’s quote. That sounds very reasonable to most people. The problem is that Jack doesn’t care at all for reason or logic. Nor does he care for Piggy and fairness, and he obviously doesn’t care at all about what’s right and what isn’t. CH 11 (p )

118 The End of Civilization “[T]he conch exploded into a thousand white fragments and ceased to exist” (p. 181) Piggy’s civilized request to return his glasses, up against savage force, leads only to violence and death.  Roger, who once threw rocks aiming to miss, now shoves a boulder on target. All restraint has left this most savage of savages. The tribe was capable of killing Simon only when worked up to a great frenzy and so frightened that they lost their grip on reality.  Roger is now able to kill Piggy coolly in broad daylight, to attempt to kill Ralph, and to torture the twins into submission. CH 11 (p )

119 Terror and Helplessness “Ralph stumbled, feeling not pain but panic” (p. 181) Debate has failed; reasonable requests have been silenced; the conch, symbol of society, has been crushed with Piggy along with everything both of them represented. Notice that Piggy’s head burst open and his brain burst out; his wisdom is lost, right after the loss of the conch – intelligence can’t survive without civilization.  All symbols and supporters of civilization except Ralph are gone, and he is helpless without fire, glasses, followers, Piggy’s reason, and Simon’s insight. CH 11 (p )

120 Chapter 12: “Cry of the Hunters” Preview Savages True Enemies The Lord of the Flies The Duality of Fire The Naval Officer – Deus Ex Machina

121 Chapter 12 “Cry of the Hunters”

122 Writing Prompts/Discussion Starters Why did Samneric join Jack’s tribe? What has Roger prepared for Ralph? Where have we seen that before? So what did Roger have planned for Ralph? How does Jack appear on the beach?

123 What boy cannot remember his name? Who takes responsibility for the events on the island? Why is the naval officer disappointed in the boys? Why should he be disappointed in them?

124 Savages “But really, thought Ralph, this was not Bill” (p. 183) These boys are no longer the same people they were before. Most of them still resemble their former selves physically, but that’s about as far as the resemblance goes. They no longer care for most things that civilized people care about – hygiene, fairness, respect – and there’s evidence that many of them have changed so much that they don’t really remember what things were like before they were savages.  Percival Wemys Madison can no longer even remember his name (201).  Roger is a remorseless torturer and killer. At this point, he may even be worse than Jack. Roger is the one who single-handedly kills Piggy, instructs Jack in torturing the twins, and sharpens a stick at both ends for Ralph. Will they also … eat Ralph? We don’t know, but would that surprise you at this point? CH 12 (p )

125 True Enemies “Then there was that indefinable connection between himself and Jack; who therefore would never let him alone; never” (p. 184) Jack and Ralph aren’t complete opposites.  Ralph has felt the same blood lust as Jack, and Jack has experienced the same twinge of conscience as Ralph for the blood on his hands. At the core they are the same, or at least they used to be. In this case each individual is trying to exterminate, by destroying his antagonist, the living example of a life-view he has rejected. The only way for Jack to feel secure is to systematically destroy Simon, the conch, Piggy, and Ralph. Likewise, whether Ralph realizes it or not, the only way he would ever be safe on the island would be for him to kill Jack. CH 12 (p )

126

127 The Lord of the Flies “The skull regarded Ralph as one who knows all the answers and won’t tell” (p. 185) Ralph comes face to face with the sow’s head, the symbol for the beast and evil. Notice how Golding describes the skull – it gleams as white as the conch.  Golding wants us to associate the two important symbols in our minds as Ralph focuses on the skull.  Here we have reason and order vs.irrational evil the conch vs.the sow’s head Ralph vs.Jack. CH 12 (p )

128 The Duality of Fire “The fools! The fools! The fire must be almost at the fruit trees – what would they eat tomorrow?” (p. 198) It should be noted that the single repeated wish Ralph had expressed when he was in power was to keep a signal fire going to attract ships. Ironically, it is eventually the uncontrollable fire started by the hunters to kill Ralph that attracts help. CH 12 (p )

129 Deus Ex Machina A deus ex machina (Latin for "god out of the machine”) is a plot device whereby a seemingly impossible problem is suddenly and abruptly solved with the contrived and unexpected intervention of some new event, character, ability, or object.

130 It refers to the conventions of Greek tragedy, where a crane (meckane) was used to lower actors playing gods onto the stage. Modern examples:  Toy Story 3  “The Pit and the Pendulum”

131 The Naval Officer – Deus Ex Machina “Fun and games” (p. 200) The officer is a military man and part of the savage business of war. He doesn’t believe that two boys have been killed, and he refers to the Victorian adventure story Coral Island and commends the boys for a “jolly good show” This is the adult Ralph and Piggy were waiting for, and this “grownup” officer is absurdly blind to reality. More… CH 12 (p )

132 The Naval Officer (cont.) Right now Golding’s message comes in loud and clear. The officer saved the boys, especially Ralph, from a horrific manhunt. He saved them from the evil in themselves. But the officer is a military officer on a warship. Who will save the adults? The beast represents the capacity for evil that is present in all human beings. CH 12 (p )


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