Presentation on theme: "Adding Meaning To Media"— Presentation transcript:
1 Adding Meaning To Media Pat Brogan, Ph.D.Automatic Sync TechnologiesJune 2009
2 Adding Meaning To Media Why caption and transcribeBenefits and PenaltiesResearchSelecting MediaCaptioning options and processCreative ways to fund captioning
3 Pat Brogan Bias- Passion for leveraging technology for learning 30+ years professional engagementHardware, software companies: IBM, Apple, Macromedia, Academic Systems, Echo360Dissertation and Research on rich-media & distance learningWorked with standards on elearning (SCORM, LOM, Accessibility)Adjunct marketing professor SCUHighly influenced by motherhood, non-profit work with at-risk youth
4 About ASTFounded in 1998 post-US Dept of Education grant (SBIR program)Provides transcripts, and automated, web-based, offline captioning for variety of media formats (40)Used by customersOutstanding price, service and quality
5 Adding Meaning to Media through Captioning Improve learning outcomes by delivering a richer variety of learning materialsPrimary source of input for deaf and hard of hearingSupport different learning styles and skillsReinforce language and literacy skills, ESLFit more learning environmentsMobility, privacy, devices, bandwidthMake content discoverable, navigable, reusableAccessibility compliance with legislation and policy mandates: Federal, State & Local, system, institution
6 Close your eyes and think about the image the word “caption” evokes Challenge:Close your eyes and think about the image the word “caption” evokes
13 Changing The Model As The Models Change Move from accommodation to Universal DesignProvide learners with control, optionsTranscripts instead of note-takersRecorded lectures for those immobile?Re-think “transmissive pedagogical” models --Park egos about attendanceAndragogy vs. PedagogyJust in time vs. just in case learningAppreciate preemptive multitasking, social networking modality of digital natives
14 Appreciate Research“Augmenting an auditory experience with captions more than doubles the retention and comprehension levels.” Gary Robson, The Closed Captioning Handbook“People retain about 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, and 50% of what they hear and see.” Dales Learning Cone of Experience (Confucius :"Tell me and I'll forget. Show me and I'll remember. Involve me and I'll understand”
15 More ResearchAdult students that used captioned video presentations progressed significantly better than those using traditional literacy techniques. Benjamin Michael Rogner, Adult Literacy: Captioned Videotapes and Word RecognitionDual Coding Theory postulates that both visual and verbal information are processed differently and along distinct channels with the human mind creating separate representations for information processed in each channel. Allan Paivio, University of Western Ontario
16 Multi-Modal LearningUse 2 or more senses to avoid sensory overload (Granström, House, & Karlsson 2002, Clark & Mayer 2003)Read it: transcripts of the instructor‘s presentation are availableHear it: audio of the instructor maps to the video of the presentationSee it: presentation materials, screenshots, and diagrams appear on-screen synchronized with the instructor‘s wordsDo it!
17 Learning Outcomes: SFSU Study Instructional video materials delivered randomly to students-50% with captions 50% withoutTwo trends emerged:No captions: students were quite passive and silent during class discussions - with the "usual speakers" dominating the conversation and generalizations were pervasive.With captions: students were more engaged and responsive to the questions asked about the film. In a similar vein, students made interesting analogies to their everyday lives and reference to specific information and events from the video was much more abundant.GPAs were 1 full point higher with population exposed to captionsSource: And Captions For All? A Case Study of the Relevance of Using Captions in a College Classroom by Robert Keith Collins, Assistant Professor, American Indian Studies
18 Students Speak-SJSU Better Absorption of Material “It helped me to catch words that I didn't understand, and also helped with spelling.”“It allows me to ‘pause’ the lecture and take notes from the captions when my note-taking lags behind the spoken lecture.”“I caught several things the second time around reading captions that I did not listening the first time around.”Allows Better Interactivity with Course Material“I much prefer the captioned lectures and being able to look at the links while you are talking. So far this has been the BEST online class I've taken at SJSU, others should learn from your example.”
19 Students Speak Diversifies Delivery of Video Media “I was able to ‘read’ at my desk without having the audio turned on so that others in my office wouldn't be bothered.”“Captions also allow you to view videos when you are in a situation where you are not able to use sound.”
20 Captions Improve: Searchability, Discoverability, Navigability Captions and transcript text can be used as meta-data for SEO (search engine optimization)Can work with variety of tools: Google video, AST search, ReelsurferCNET captioned video drove 30% increase in Google hits
21 The Stick: Accessibility & Legal Compliance Federal, State and Local, System-wide, campus initiativesFederal Accessibility legislation: ADA, Section 504, Section 508NY, TX, MO, NC, VA, IL, OK, CA have accessibility laws for education. Missouri passed captioning law for publishers with treble damage penaltiesState law summary at:
22 Section 508 requires Federal electronic and information technology to be accessible to people with disabilities, including employees and members of the public.§ Web-based intranet and internet information and applications. This section applies to all websites and is not unique to training materials or online courses. The standard requires that web content be constructed and tagged in a manner that enables the effective use of screen readers and other technologies that allow people with disabilities to access internet content. The commercial marketplace includes numerous design tools, checking methods, and training courses to assist website owners to comply with Section 508.§ Video and multimedia products. This section contains two provisions that apply explicitly to training and informational video and multimedia productions. These provisions require a) captioning of any speech or other audio information that is necessary for the comprehension of the material and b) audio descriptions of any visual information that is necessary for the comprehension of the material.
23 Legal Precedents Non-compliance results in civil rights actions Lawsuits:TargetAOLUC
24 Scope of “Captionable” Media University Communications (Promo and news videos)Distance Learning materials, PodcastsRecorded classes and learning objectsVHS/DVD library archivesBroadcast productionsSpecial Event videosStudent content
25 Content Portals iTunes U YouTube Campus LMS; media servera 250+ universities, 175K educational content items, 58M usersYouTube160+ Universities, 30K videosCampus LMS; media serveraLecture Capture systemsAcademic Earth, Facebook, Twitter
26 Why Use Content Portals? Extensive adoption=distributionMinimal training/ end user supportInexpensiveUbiquitous, cross-platform and devicesAdds value to brandCreates framework to sell content
27 Making Content Accessible Consistent with Universal Design PrinciplesCaption and sync videoProvide transcripts+ of audioAudio descriptions for video
28 Accesible iTunes U Content For Audio only/Podcast add a transcriptFor VODcast (.m4v) add captions and a transcriptAST can provide transcript and .scc file, additional integration step needed.How to movie at:For video: line 21
39 Creative Uses of Transcripts & Captions Students retain more if they are able to 'read ahead' and have more of the transcript visible
40 VTE’s Providing a Full Transcript Offers: The ability to perform deep searchesThe ability to print, download, and annotate course materials to improve retention.VTE allows the student to unlink the transcript and treat it as a standalone asset. Additional time to review materials. In some cases, students may not natively speak the instructor‘s language.Having a verbatim transcript allows them to pause the audio lecture and look up words they need to clarify without missing any of the material.Compliance with American with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards.
42 Deciding What to Caption & Transcribe Type of contentShelf LifeVolumeTranslation and or transcriptionLecturesShortHighMaybeSupplementallearningLongLowYesDistance learningShort or longEventsBothStudent contentNo
46 Initial FindingsStakeholders did not all fully appreciate the scope of the problem, what is required to create a compliant result, or the cost involved.Individual campuses did not have adequate resources to leverage bulk discounts.Search for a “silver bullet” solution sometimes kept people from finding reliable, effective solutions.
47 Initial FindingsLarge-scale student-based transcription was difficult to build and scale reliably; more expensive than it first seems.Speech Rec solutions do not produce a compliant, usable result due to high error rates. The labor cost to repair the results makes them uncompetitive.Most campuses were already working with or experimenting with Automatic Sync Technologies.
50 Submission Options Web-based user interface Lecture capture uploads Tools available for batch uploadsInterface for automated upload processes (eg: CNET)Mail-in service for VHS/DVDs
51 Submitting through the Web UI Provide your media file and transcript file (if available)Set up your “Advanced Settings”Press “Submit”Do not kill the status barDo not make multiple submissions at onceCheck the time for the upload on the status page
52 Accessing Existing Jobs Can sort jobs in a variety of ways to locate jobs.Can retrieve transcriptsCan retrieve results (for up to one year)Can issue “redos”
53 TranscriptionNotes to TranscriberReview TranscriptRedo feature
54 Redo Feature Can change the transcript or any advanced settings Cannot change the “Application Type”Available for 6 months after submission
55 Account SettingsChange your contact infoConfigure what notices you get
57 Other ResourcesThe CSU Intro video is at:Take a look at AST’s home page for more information:Examine our growing series of “how-to” videos (all captioned!) at:Info for Flash captioning:Info for Podcast captioning: