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Adding Meaning To Media

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Presentation on theme: "Adding Meaning To Media"— Presentation transcript:

1 Adding Meaning To Media
Pat Brogan, Ph.D. Automatic Sync Technologies June 2009

2 Adding Meaning To Media
Why caption and transcribe Benefits and Penalties Research Selecting Media Captioning options and process Creative ways to fund captioning

3 Pat Brogan Bias- Passion for leveraging technology for learning
30+ years professional engagement Hardware, software companies: IBM, Apple, Macromedia, Academic Systems, Echo360 Dissertation and Research on rich-media & distance learning Worked with standards on elearning (SCORM, LOM, Accessibility) Adjunct marketing professor SCU Highly influenced by motherhood, non-profit work with at-risk youth

4 About AST Founded in 1998 post-US Dept of Education grant (SBIR program) Provides transcripts, and automated, web-based, offline captioning for variety of media formats (40) Used by customers Outstanding price, service and quality

5 Adding Meaning to Media through Captioning
Improve learning outcomes by delivering a richer variety of learning materials Primary source of input for deaf and hard of hearing Support different learning styles and skills Reinforce language and literacy skills, ESL Fit more learning environments Mobility, privacy, devices, bandwidth Make content discoverable, navigable, reusable Accessibility compliance with legislation and policy mandates: Federal, State & Local, system, institution

6 Close your eyes and think about the image the word “caption” evokes
Challenge: Close your eyes and think about the image the word “caption” evokes

7 TV Subtitles?

8 Foreign Language Subtitles?



11 It’s Not Just About The Deaf
Majority of caption users are not hearing impaired It’s more than just TV

12 Supporting Disabled Students

13 Changing The Model As The Models Change
Move from accommodation to Universal Design Provide learners with control, options Transcripts instead of note-takers Recorded lectures for those immobile? Re-think “transmissive pedagogical” models --Park egos about attendance Andragogy vs. Pedagogy Just in time vs. just in case learning Appreciate preemptive multitasking, social networking modality of digital natives

14 Appreciate Research “Augmenting an auditory experience with captions more than doubles the retention and comprehension levels.” Gary Robson, The Closed Captioning Handbook “People retain about 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, and 50% of what they hear and see.” Dales Learning Cone of Experience ( Confucius :"Tell me and I'll forget. Show me and I'll remember. Involve me and I'll understand”

15 More Research Adult students that used captioned video presentations progressed significantly better than those using traditional literacy techniques. Benjamin Michael Rogner, Adult Literacy: Captioned Videotapes and Word Recognition Dual Coding Theory postulates that both visual and verbal information are processed differently and along distinct channels with the human mind creating separate representations for information processed in each channel. Allan Paivio, University of Western Ontario

16 Multi-Modal Learning Use 2 or more senses to avoid sensory overload (Granström, House, & Karlsson 2002, Clark & Mayer 2003) Read it: transcripts of the instructor‘s presentation are available Hear it: audio of the instructor maps to the video of the presentation See it: presentation materials, screenshots, and diagrams appear on-screen synchronized with the instructor‘s words Do it!

17 Learning Outcomes: SFSU Study
Instructional video materials delivered randomly to students-50% with captions 50% without Two trends emerged: No captions: students were quite passive and silent during class discussions - with the "usual speakers" dominating the conversation and generalizations were pervasive. With captions: students were more engaged and responsive to the questions asked about the film. In a similar vein, students made interesting analogies to their everyday lives and reference to specific information and events from the video was much more abundant. GPAs were 1 full point higher with population exposed to captions Source: And Captions For All? A Case Study of the Relevance of Using Captions in a College Classroom by Robert Keith Collins, Assistant Professor, American Indian Studies

18 Students Speak-SJSU Better Absorption of Material
“It helped me to catch words that I didn't understand, and also helped with spelling.” “It allows me to ‘pause’ the lecture and take notes from the captions when my note-taking lags behind the spoken lecture.” “I caught several things the second time around reading captions that I did not listening the first time around.” Allows Better Interactivity with Course Material “I much prefer the captioned lectures and being able to look at the links while you are talking. So far this has been the BEST online class I've taken at SJSU, others should learn from your example.”

19 Students Speak Diversifies Delivery of Video Media
“I was able to ‘read’ at my desk without having the audio turned on so that others in my office wouldn't be bothered.” “Captions also allow you to view videos when you are in a situation where you are not able to use sound.”

20 Captions Improve: Searchability, Discoverability, Navigability
Captions and transcript text can be used as meta-data for SEO (search engine optimization) Can work with variety of tools: Google video, AST search, Reelsurfer CNET captioned video drove 30% increase in Google hits

21 The Stick: Accessibility & Legal Compliance
Federal, State and Local, System-wide, campus initiatives Federal Accessibility legislation: ADA, Section 504, Section 508 NY, TX, MO, NC, VA, IL, OK, CA have accessibility laws for education. Missouri passed captioning law for publishers with treble damage penalties State law summary at:

22 Section 508 requires Federal electronic and information technology to be accessible to people with disabilities, including employees and members of the public. § Web-based intranet and internet information and applications. This section applies to all websites and is not unique to training materials or online courses. The standard requires that web content be constructed and tagged in a manner that enables the effective use of screen readers and other technologies that allow people with disabilities to access internet content. The commercial marketplace includes numerous design tools, checking methods, and training courses to assist website owners to comply with Section 508. § Video and multimedia products. This section contains two provisions that apply explicitly to training and informational video and multimedia productions. These provisions require a) captioning of any speech or other audio information that is necessary for the comprehension of the material and b) audio descriptions of any visual information that is necessary for the comprehension of the material.

23 Legal Precedents Non-compliance results in civil rights actions
Lawsuits: Target AOL UC

24 Scope of “Captionable” Media
University Communications (Promo and news videos) Distance Learning materials, Podcasts Recorded classes and learning objects VHS/DVD library archives Broadcast productions Special Event videos Student content

25 Content Portals iTunes U YouTube Campus LMS; media servera
250+ universities, 175K educational content items, 58M users YouTube 160+ Universities, 30K videos Campus LMS; media servera Lecture Capture systems Academic Earth, Facebook, Twitter

26 Why Use Content Portals?
Extensive adoption=distribution Minimal training/ end user support Inexpensive Ubiquitous, cross-platform and devices Adds value to brand Creates framework to sell content

27 Making Content Accessible
Consistent with Universal Design Principles Caption and sync video Provide transcripts+ of audio Audio descriptions for video

28 Accesible iTunes U Content
For Audio only/Podcast add a transcript For VODcast (.m4v) add captions and a transcript AST can provide transcript and .scc file, additional integration step needed. How to movie at: For video: line 21

29 Adding Content to iTunes U



32 QuickTime Captioning Options


34 YouTube Accessibility
Need to do screen shot for this but snagit doesn’t work on mac so I need another tool



37 Accessible Echo360 Recorded Lecture

38 Echo360 Automated Captioning Workflow

39 Creative Uses of Transcripts & Captions
Students retain more if they are able to 'read ahead' and have more of the transcript visible

40 VTE’s Providing a Full Transcript Offers:
The ability to perform deep searches The ability to print, download, and annotate course materials to improve retention. VTE allows the student to unlink the transcript and treat it as a standalone asset. Additional time to review materials. In some cases, students may not natively speak the instructor‘s language. Having a verbatim transcript allows them to pause the audio lecture and look up words they need to clarify without missing any of the material. Compliance with American with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards.


42 Deciding What to Caption & Transcribe
Type of content Shelf Life Volume Translation and or transcription Lectures Short High Maybe Supplemental learning Long Low Yes Distance learning Short or long Events Both Student content No

43 Prioritizing Captioning Projects
Critical Accommodations Distance Learning classes and materials Public information Training materials Events, communications Recorded lectures

44 Evaluating Captioning Solutions
Does it meet the need? Accuracy, quality, speed… Cost? Reliability? Scalability? Ease of use: minimal impact on workflow?

45 Captioning Approaches Considered:
Realtime vs.Offline Student labor Speech Recognition solutions Outsource captioning vendors

46 Initial Findings Stakeholders did not all fully appreciate the scope of the problem, what is required to create a compliant result, or the cost involved. Individual campuses did not have adequate resources to leverage bulk discounts. Search for a “silver bullet” solution sometimes kept people from finding reliable, effective solutions.

47 Initial Findings Large-scale student-based transcription was difficult to build and scale reliably; more expensive than it first seems. Speech Rec solutions do not produce a compliant, usable result due to high error rates. The labor cost to repair the results makes them uncompetitive. Most campuses were already working with or experimenting with Automatic Sync Technologies.

48 Effect of Errors Predicted Result

49 Effect of Errors Actual Test

50 Submission Options Web-based user interface Lecture capture uploads
Tools available for batch uploads Interface for automated upload processes (eg: CNET) Mail-in service for VHS/DVDs

51 Submitting through the Web UI
Provide your media file and transcript file (if available) Set up your “Advanced Settings” Press “Submit” Do not kill the status bar Do not make multiple submissions at once Check the time for the upload on the status page

52 Accessing Existing Jobs
Can sort jobs in a variety of ways to locate jobs. Can retrieve transcripts Can retrieve results (for up to one year) Can issue “redos”

53 Transcription Notes to Transcriber Review Transcript Redo feature

54 Redo Feature Can change the transcript or any advanced settings
Cannot change the “Application Type” Available for 6 months after submission

55 Account Settings Change your contact info Configure what notices you get

56 Helpful info Help page

57 Other Resources The CSU Intro video is at: Take a look at AST’s home page for more information: Examine our growing series of “how-to” videos (all captioned!) at: Info for Flash captioning: Info for Podcast captioning:

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