# TS4447 Highway Geometric Design

## Presentation on theme: "TS4447 Highway Geometric Design"— Presentation transcript:

TS4447 Highway Geometric Design
Horizontal Alignment

Horizontal Alignment Minimum Radii Horizontal Curve
Full Circle (FC)  Tugas 3 Spiral Circle Spiral (SCS)  Tugas 4 Spiral Spiral (SS)  Tugas 4 Sight Distance on Curve  Tugas 5 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) Passing Sight Distance (PSD) Widening on Curve  Tugas 5 Superelevation Diagram  Tugas 6 Stationing  Tugas 6

Design Classification
Design Type & Class Design Speed Design Vehicles Cross Section R = V2/127(e+f) R’ << R FC / SCS / SS R’ << R Dij  Ti + Tj A B

A B Sight Distance on Curve Widening on Curve Superelevation Diagram Stationing

Rmin = V2 / 127 ( e + f ) R  minimum radii (m) V  design speed (kph)
e  superelevation (%) f  side friction

Superelevation

Tiga Macam Lengkung Horisontal
TC CT TS SC CS ST SS PI Full Circle (FC) Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS) Spiral-Spiral (SS)

Geometric Design … normally seeks to ensure uniformity of alignment and maximum levels of safety and comfort for drivers using the road, within given economic constraints. Compromise are inevitable to achieve an acceptable solution and not all objectives can be fully met. Often, however, it is possible to improve road safety implications of design features are considered at the design stage.

TC CT

Potongan Melintang Rencana
Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)

Minimum Radii Not Required Transition Section [RSNI T-14-2004 p.31].
Vr (kph) Rmin (m) 100 5.000 60 1.500 90 3.000 50 1.200 80 2.500 40 800 70 2.000 30 500

Azimuth, Intersection Angle, distance between PI

Panjang Bagian Lengkung Minimum [RSNI p.27 table.11]
VR (kph) L (m) 100 170 90 155 80 135 70 120 60 105 50 85 40 30 55

RFC Minimum Sesuai Syarat [RSNI p.27 table.11]

Check dij  Ti + Tj

Azimuth, Intersection Angle, distance between PI

Latihan Pilih 2-3 PI yang bersebelahan,
Coba desain tikungan pada PI tersebut dengan jenis FC.

Tugas 3 Azimuth, D, distance between PI Minimum radius Curve type FC
Stopping Sight Distance Widening on curve Stationing Superelevation diagram AutoCAD drawing Dikumpulkan via , Minggu 23 Ags 09 (pk. 12:00) dan CDRW, Senin 24 Ags 09 (pk. 12:00) di TU Sipil

Tiga Macam Lengkung Horisontal
TC CT TS SC CS ST SS PI Full Circle (FC) Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS) Spiral-Spiral (SS)

FC SCS

TFC < TSCS

FC vs SCS

FC vs SCS

CLOTHOID (Spiral) CURVE

TRANSITION (Spiral) CURVE
To provide a natural, easy-to-follow path for drivers, where centrifugal force increase/decrease gradually. To provide a convenient desirable arrangement for superelevation run-off. To provide a flexible change in lane-width. To enhanced the appearance of the highway, to avoid the noticeable breaks at the beginning and ending of circular curves

Tangent Runout is the general term denoting the length of highway needed to accomplish the change in cross slope from a normal section to a section with the adverse cross slope removed, or vice-versa. 2% 0% 2% 2% 0% 2%

Superelevation Runoff, is the general term denoting length of highway needed to accomplish the change in cross slope from a section with adverse crown removed to a fully superelevation section, or vice-versa. 2% 2% 0% 2% 2% 0%

Superelevation Runoff TR menambah jarak antar TS !!!
Tangent Runout

Check dij  Ti (+TR) + Tj (+ TR)

Minimum Length of Transition Sections
Minimum Maneuver Time for Traveling on Transition Curve [RSNI T p.30]. LS = (Vr/3,6) x t Vr  design speed (km/h) t  running time (2 sec)

Minimum Length of Transition Sections
Minimum Length of Superelevation Runoff [RSNI T p.30]. LS = W 1/D (ed + eNC) LS = W 1/D ed  AASHTO D  relative slopes ratio (m/m) W  road width (m) eNC  normal cross fall (%) ed  design superelevation (%)

Superelevation Runoff TR menambah jarak antar TS !!!
Tangent Runout

Spiral-Circle-Spiral or Spiral-Spiral
2% Full-Circle, Normal Cross-Fall 2% Spiral-Circle-Spiral or Spiral-Spiral Reverse Cross-Fall or Superelevation

FC min 

Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS)

Check dij  Ti (+TR) + Tj (+ TR)

SCS vs SS

SCS vs SS

Tiga Macam Lengkung Horisontal
TC CT TS SC CS ST SS PI Full Circle (FC) Spiral-Circle-Spiral (SCS) Spiral-Spiral (SS)

Spiral-Spiral (SS)

Ls max

Ls min

Ls SS

Check dij  Ti (+TR) + Tj (+ TR)

Latihan Pilih 1-2 PI yang tidak memenuhi syarat desain FC,
Coba desain tikungan pada PI tersebut dengan jenis SCS atau SS.

Tugas 4 Azimuth, D, distance between PI Minimum radius
Curve type SCS & SS Stopping Sight Distance Widening on curve Stationing Superelevation diagram AutoCAD drawing Dikumpulkan via , Minggu 30 Ags 09 (pk. 12:00) dan CDRW, Senin 31 Ags 09 (pk. 12:00) di TU Sipil

BRAKING DISTANCE

S = 15.9 d x f ±e x B% Braking Distance !
100% Braking – Four Wheel Lock-up Skid or full ABS – Where f = 0.75 and S = 80km/hr Front Brakes Only – 70% d = 48 meters Rear Brakes Only – 30% d = 112 meters One Front Brake – 35% d = 96 meters One Back Brake – 15% d = 225 meters !!! The distance required to skid to stop changes with the amount of braking power. The formula is multiplied by the percentage of the braking power expressed as a decimal. This is a good exercise for the students as they have to rearrange the equation and solve for “d.”

STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE
[RSNI T p.22]

Potongan Melintang Rencana
Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)

Minimum Stopping Sight Distance [Table 10 p. 23 RSNI 2004]
Design Speed (kph) SSD (m) 100 185 60 85 90 160 50 65 80 130 40 70 105 30 35

PASSING SIGHT DISTANCE

Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve

Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve

Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve
[RSNI T p.23]

Potongan Melintang Rencana
B Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)

Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve

Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve

Widening on Curve

Widening on Curve A traffic lane on a curve must be widened because:
The rear wheels do not track the front wheels Vehicle’s front overhang requires an additional lateral space Difficulty of driving on curves justifies wider lateral clearance

Widening on Curve

Widening on Curve Wn  width of traveled way on tangent, m.
U  track width of vehicle (out-to-out tires), m. C  lateral clearance per vehicle assumed 0,6/0,75/0,9 for Wn of 6,0/6,6/7,2 respectively FA  with of overhang, m. Z  extra width allowance for difficulty of driving on curves, m. u  track width on tangent (out-to-out) 2,6m. R  radius of centerline of 2-lane highway, m. L  wheelbase, m. A  front overhang, m. V  design speed of highway, km/h.

Widening on Curve

Potongan Melintang Rencana
Tipe Jalan : Kolektor Sekunder Kecepatan Rencana : 40 Kph Kendaraan Rencana : Single Unit (SU)

Latihan Pilih 2-3 PI, Periksa syarat Stopping Sight Distance dan kebutuhan Widening on Curve.

Tugas 5 Azimuth, D, distance between PI Minimum radius Curve type
Stopping Sight Distance Widening on curve Stationing Superelevation diagram AutoCAD drawing Dikumpulkan via , Minggu 6 Sep 09 (pk. 12:00) dan CDRW, Senin 7 Sep 09 (pk. 12:00) di TU Sipil

Superelevation

Superelevation

Superelevation

Superelevation Diagram
SCS - Right Turn TS SC CS ST emax en cl Ls Lc Ls

Latihan Pilih 2-3 PI dengan jenis tikungan SCS/SS belok Kanan/Kiri
Gambarlah (skets) Diagram Superelevasi pada PI tersebut.

Stationing

Stationing [cont’d]

Tugas 6 Azimuth, D, distance between PI Minimum radius Curve type
Dikumpulkan via , Minggu 13 Sep 09 (pk. 12:00) dan CDRW, Senin 14 Sep 09 (pk. 12:00) di TU Sipil Azimuth, D, distance between PI Minimum radius Curve type Stopping Sight Distance Widening on curve Stationing Superelevation diagram AutoCAD drawing