Presentation on theme: "Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM)"— Presentation transcript:
1Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM) A product of the Federal Highway Administration’s Safety Research and Development program, the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM) is a suite of software analysis tools for explicit, quantitative evaluation of safety and operational effects of geometric design decisions during the highway design process.This presentation provides an overview of IHSDM.The presentation has two main parts.The first part describes the purpose and scope of IHSDM.The second part highlights IHSDM’s evaluation capabilities.
2GoalTo marshal the best available knowledge about safety effects of geometrics into a more useful and usable form for highway project planners and designers.FHWA’s goal in developing IHSDM is to marshal the best available knowledge about the safety and operational impacts of highway geometry design alternatives into a more useful and usable form for highway project planners and designers, and traffic and safety reviewers.
3What is the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM)? A suite of software analysis tools used for evaluating the safety and operational impacts of highway geometric design.
4Intended UsageThroughout the highway design process (preliminary planning and engineering through detailed design to final review)For existing and new alignmentsOn two-lane rural highways (2003 release)The intent is that highway planners and designers can use IHSDM for input to decisions that impact safety throughout the project development process—from project scoping and preliminary design, through final design and design review.IHSDM can evaluate new alignments as well as improvement projects on existing roadways.The 2003 release of IHSDM applies only to rural two-lane highways.Research is underway to add capabilities for evaluating multilane rural highways.
5Partnership Software Vendors (Import data from design packages) State DOTs (Arkansas, California, Illinois, Minnesota, North Carolina, Washington, and West Virginia)Software Vendors (Import data from design packages)GEOPAK CAiCE
6Components Evaluation Modules Basic Services Policy Review Crash PredictionDesign ConsistencyIntersection ReviewTraffic AnalysisBasic ServicesIHSDM’s evaluation capabilities are structured in five modules:Policy Review ModuleCrash Prediction ModuleDesign Consistency ModuleIntersection Diagnostic Review ModuleTraffic Analysis Module.Each module evaluates a design from a different vantage point and provides different indicators of safety.IHSDM Basic Services include importing highway geometry data from civil design packages and managing data within IHSDM, as well as HTML-based Help functions and User’s Manuals.The remainder of the presentation provides a brief description of each module.
7Policy Review Module Scope Checks roadway segment geometry against relevant design policy and “flags” variationsThe Policy Review Module automates the process of checking designs against relevant design guidelines and “flags” (or highlights) elements that vary from values recommended in policy. This module could be used to evaluate the geometry of existing roadways in project scoping studies, to perform checks during the design process, and to automate portions of the final design review.IHSDM provides tables of policy values from the AASHTO Green Book (1990, 1994, and 2001 editions). It also provides the capability for individual States to edit those tables to reflect their own policy values that differ from AASHTO’s.Users may check any or all of 17 elements of cross section, horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, and sight distance.
8Policy Review Module Cross-section checks: Traveled Way Width Auxiliary Lane WidthShoulder WidthShoulder TypeNormal Cross-SlopeNormal Shoulder slopeCross-Slope Rollover on CurvesBridge Width
9Policy Review Module Horizontal Alignment checks: Radius of CurvatureLength of Horizontal CurveSuperelevationCompound Curve RatioVertical Alignment Checks:Tangent GradeVertical Curvature
11Crash Prediction Module Scope Estimates expected crash frequency based upon roadway geometry and traffic volumesThe Crash Prediction Module estimates the expected crash frequency on an existing or proposed roadway segment as a function of the roadway’s horizontal and vertical alignment and cross section geometry, roadside environment and driveway density, and traffic volumes.The crash prediction algorithm breaks the roadway into intersections and homogeneous roadway segments of uniform geometry and traffic volume and estimates the expected crash frequency on each intersection and roadway segment. The algorithm applies a base (regression) model to account for the effect of traffic volume and crash modification factors to account for the effect of intersection/roadway geometry. The algorithm includes a calibration factor that States can develop and apply to reflect their own crash experience. Additionally, when the design alternative being evaluated is an existing roadway, the algorithm provides an Empirical Bayes procedure that use historical crash data for that roadway to refine its crash estimates. Publication No. FHWA-RD “Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways,” posted on the Web at documents the algorithm in detail.The remaining modules are diagnostic in nature. That is, they evaluate existing roadways or proposed design alternatives for common causes of safety problems on rural two-lane highways.
16Design Consistency Module Scope Estimates 85th percentile speed profile along alignment to evaluate operating speed consistencyApproximately 35 percent of all fatal crashes on two-lane rural highways occur on horizontal curves. Speed inconsistencies are a common contributor to crashes on curves, particularly on older, lower-design speed highways.The Design Consistency Module estimates the speeds of free-flowing vehicles along an alignment. Its output is an 85th percentile speed profile which can be used to check expected operating speeds against the roadway’s assumed design speed and to estimate changes in 85th percentile speeds between successive alignment elements. The speed reduction from an approach tangent to a curve is a primary indicator of an alignment’s consistency. The goal is a uniform speed profile. The larger the speed reduction entering a curve, the more likely it is that some drivers will not reduce their speed enough and the higher the probability of crashes at that curve.The Module’s speed prediction algorithm is documented in Publication No. FHWA-RD , “Speed Prediction for Two-Lane Rural Highways,” posted on the Web at
17Design Consistency Module Scope Estimates 85th percentile speed profile along alignment to:Check design speed assumptionEstimate speed reductions from an approach tangent to entering horizontal curves
18Intersection Review Module Scope Policy ReviewDiagnostic ReviewApproximately 15 percent of all fatal crashes on two-lane rural highways occur at intersections.The Intersection Review Module includes both policy and diagnostic reviews of intersection geometry.The Policy Review component checks intersection design elements against design policy.The Diagnostic Review uses expert system technology in an attempt to reproduce how an experienced designer would review an intersection design, evaluate potential safety concerns, and identify possible treatments for addressing those concerns.
19Intersection Review Module Scope Intersection Policy ReviewCorner radiusTurn lane designIntersection angleIntersection sight distance trianglesIntersection Diagnostic ReviewOn average, approximately 15 percent of all fatal crashes on two-lane rural highways occur at intersections.The Intersection Diagnostic Review Module uses expert system technology in an attempt to reproduce how an experienced designer would review an intersection design and identify potential safety and operational issues.The Module can also lead users through an evaluation process for identifying alternative safety countermeasures.
20Intersection Review Module Diagnostic Review Expert system that applies a systematic evaluation of an existing or proposed intersection geometric design to identify possible safety concerns and treatments27 concerns (configuration and alignment)Treatments include design improvements & mitigation measuresOn average, approximately 15 percent of all fatal crashes on two-lane rural highways occur at intersections.The Intersection Diagnostic Review Module uses expert system technology in an attempt to reproduce how an experienced designer would review an intersection design and identify potential safety and operational issues.The Module can also lead users through an evaluation process for identifying alternative safety countermeasures.
21Traffic Analysis Module Scope Uses TWOPAS to estimate traffic quality of service measures (average speed and % time following other vehicles)Evaluates the operational performance of alternatives to passing and climbing lanes, and short four-lane sectionsIn the Traffic Analysis Module, IHSDM uses TWOPAS, a traffic simulation model for rural two-lane highways, to estimate traffic quality of service measures.TWOPAS is the model used to calibrate the two-lane rural highway capacity analysis procedures in the Highway Capacity Manual.In contrast to the Design Consistency Module that considers free-flowing vehicles, the Traffic Analysis Module evaluates traffic operations under current or future traffic flows. It can provide estimates including mean speed and percentage of time spent following, the two principle quality of service measures used for two-lane highways in the Highway Capacity Manual.
22Driver/Vehicle Module Scope Driver performance model linked to a vehicle dynamics model that estimates driver speed and path, skidding and rollover potentialAlpha version availableExpected release in 2004The Driver/Vehicle Module has two components:A human factors-based driver-performance model evaluates a roadway’s geometric design from an unimpeded driver’s perspective and estimates their likely choice of speed and path.These speed and path predictions are input to a vehicle dynamics model that estimates the vehicle’s friction demand and, for trucks, rollover potential along the roadway.These measures are additional indicators of the likely safety performance of a design.
232003 Release 1st public release of IHSDM May be downloaded free-of-charge from IHSDM Web siteTechnical support is available (see IHSDM Web site for details)The 2003 release of IHSDM is the first public release for testing and evaluation purposes. (There were limited releases during 2001 and 2002 to volunteer beta testers.)The 2003 release is available for downloading free of charge from the IHSDM Web site (see next slide for Web address).Although the 2003 release is fully functioning, FHWA qualifies the release “for testing and evaluation purposes” to emphasize that software development is ongoing. FHWA encourages feedback from users, which it will use in prioritizing enhancements for future planned releases.
24IHSDM Web Site www.tfhrc.gov/safety/ihsdm/ihsdm.htm The IHSDM Web site isThis site provides access to the software registration and download site.The site provides an overview of IHSDM, an electronic library of the research underlying IHSDM, and information on how to obtain technical support.
25Training Course Pilot offerings of the IHSDM training course: July hosted by Washington State DOT in VancouverAugust hosted by Central Federal Lands in DenverAugust hosted by Montana DOT in HelenaSeptember hosted by Wisconsin DOT in MadisonSeptember 29-October 1 hosted by Mississippi DOT in JacksonOctober 7-8 hosted by Maine DOT in AugustaContact Ray Krammes: or (202)