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What is Development? What does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich?

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Presentation on theme: "What is Development? What does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich?"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is Development? What does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich?

3 Jared Diamond’s (Yalu’s) question Eurasian superiority of plants and animals for domestication orientation of continents

4 Jeffrey Sachs on Africa tropical climate and disease lack of navigable rivers

5 David Landes’ explanation culture

6 Example of China After 1433 Chinese emperor abandons the “Treasure Fleet”, leaving trade and exploration

7 Modernization theory on different points of the same path undevelopedSemi-developedHighly developed

8 Dependency theory Europe’s early advantage continues to stunt the development of poorer countries trapped providing resources and agricultural goods to rich world scissors effect industrial goods resources and agricultural goods

9 Counter example: the “tigers”, etc Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore then others--Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Chile, Ireland India, China

10 how did they do this? industrialization by little steps example of Japanese car makers toys and textiles Initially protected industries, quickly subjected to competition for the world market—”export-led growth”

11 What is Development? Measuring development: GDP PPP GNH HDI includes life expectancy, literacy, and schooling as well as income

12 World HDI rankings Norway Iceland Australia Luxembourg Canada Sweden Switzerland Ireland Belgium United States

13 Is the world getting richer or poorer? Richer Long term global welfare improving with respect to average life expectancy, infant mortality, income, calories consumed, etc. But some regions have experienced declines in recent years

14 Sub-Saharan Africa the exception

15 Moreover, global inequality increased 1948 developing world per capita GDP-- $100, US--$1,600 1993 developing world—$1,100, US-- $25,000 Similar trends in child mortality, education, etc.



18 What about within country inequality?

19 What is the role of AID to the poor countries American aid: first or second biggest contributor low percentage--.1-.2% of GDP often given to mid-income countries-- politics

20 Millennium Development Goals by 2015 halve the number living on $1 a day universal primary ed eliminate gender discrimination in 1ary and 2ndry ed reduce by 2/3 child mortality, maternal reverse spread of AIDS, malaria halve those w/o access to clean water


22 Millennium Development Goals raise North’s contribution to.7% GNP Jeffrey Sachs’ position: 1000s of underfinanced programs in health, education, infrastructure critics: there is no capacity to productively spend large increases

23 Debt Relief Since mid 90s, a major issue, with roughly 30 countries receiving relief

24 Remittances More important than aid?--over $100 billion, especially to Mexico, Philippines, and India

25 Women in the Muslim world Places w/ low female ed., rights, are poor Turkey under Ataturk 1920s women gained basic rights, and was first country with women on high court, and one of the first with a female PM Tunisia with independence 1956 Banned polygamy, marriage age to 17, consent for marriage, women can request divorce, etc. Tunisia’s better literacy, lower birth rates have propelled it past neighboring countries Qatar—since ’99 women and men vote and run, majority college students female Kuwait—voting in 2005

26 Cont’d Saudi Arabia Women treated as minors But playing increasing role in politics, ed, and business Afghanistan Less than 20% female literacy Ed improved since Taliban gone, but minimally funded Iraq The status of women could deteriorate since fall of Saddam’s secular regime

27 Micro lending Grameen Bank has expanded since 70’s— has 6 million borrowers in Bangladesh, 96% women

28 Trade more than aid developed countries still protect their markets from poor country goods--sugar, cotton, tobacco, etc.

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