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Presentation on theme: "ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR"— Presentation transcript:


2 L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S Define the key biographical characteristics Identify two types of ability Learning and Theories of Learning Shape the behavior of others. Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement. Specific Organizational Applications

3 OB MODEL Independent Variables Individual Behaviour Age Gender
Marital Status Tenure Group Behaviour Organizational System Dependent Variables Employee Productivity Absenteeism Turnover Citizenship Job Satisfaction

4 Biographical Characteristics

5 Relationship Between Biographical Factors and Other Outcomes
Age Gender Marital Status Tenure

6 AGE Age and Job performance Age and Productivity
Common Notion: Job performance declines with increase age On the other hand: People with older age bring positive qualities to the organization Age and Productivity Strong and significant relation Older people and lacking in flexibility, resistance to change

7 Age (Cont…….) Age and Absenteeism Age and Turnover
Inverse relation More regular and less chances to quit Age and Turnover Less chances to quit Job Less chances outside the organization Age and Job Satisfaction Researchers found mixed results between these two variables Positive relations found in some studies.

8 Gender Male and Female management styles Working Mother Issues
Females are more inclined to participation, democratic behaviour and power sharing. Males are good in instant decisions. Working Mother Issues Gender and Absenteeism & Turnover

9 Marital Status No enough evidence on this relation
Generally married people are more likely to be settled Still studies need to discover the relations between divorced and separated relations on Job satisfaction, Absenteeism and Turnover.

10 Tenure CVs reflect past behaviour of organizational commitment
Seniority (Tenure) directly relate with job satisfaction Past behaviours can predict future behaviours. Studies show that employees remain with organization because of their peer circle.

11 Ability (Ability = Knowledge * Skills)

12 Dimensions of Intellectual Ability
1. Number Aptitude: Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic 2. Verbal Comprehension: Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other. 3. Perceptual Speed: Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately. 4. Inductive Reasoning: Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem.

13 Dimensions of Intellectual Ability, Contd.,
5. Deductive Reasoning: Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument. 6. Spatial Visualization: Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed. 7. Memory: Ability to retain and recall past experiences.

14 Physical Ability The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity (swiftness or precision), strength, and similar characteristics.

15 Nine Physical Abilities, Contd.,
Dynamic strength: Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time. Trunk strength: Ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles. Static strength: Ability to exert force against external objects. Explosive strength: Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts. Extent flexibility: Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible.

16 Nine Physical Abilities, Contd.,
6. Dynamic flexibility: Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements. 7. Body coordination: Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body. 8. Balance: Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance. 9. Stamina: Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time.

17 Job’s Ability Requirements
The Ability-Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements

18 Learning All complex behaviours are learned What is learning?
Any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience. First, learning involves change. Second, the change must be relatively permanent. Third, our definition is concerned with behavior. Finally, some form of experience is necessary for learning. Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning theory Contributor : Pavlov Operant Conditioning theory B. F Skinner Social Learning

19 Classical Conditioning
A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone. Many of you may be familiar with Pavlov’s dog. In this situation, Pavlov sounded a bell, then applied meat paste to the dog’s tongue. Over time, the dog began to associate the bell with the meat paste. Eventually, when Pavlov rang the bell, the dog would salivate because he expected the meat paste to be applied. What happened was learning or conditioning. The dog learned that the meat paste, which is called the unconditioned stimulus, was associated with the bell, which is the conditioned stimulus. He began to have a conditioned response to the bell when he learned that the bell meant food. The experiment is provided in more detail on the following slide. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.

20 Model of Classical Conditioning
This is Pavlov’s experiment. As explained on the previous slide, the dog learned, was conditioned, to salivate from the bell after it was repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus of the meat paste. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.

21 Examples SAMBA Saudi Aramco Apple and Steve Job’s innovativeness

22 Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors. Instrumental conditioning also requires a link between a stimulus and a response. The difference between this and classical conditioning is that the learned response is the one that is most satisfactory of responses. The famous psychologist B.F. Skinner is associated with this type of conditioning. He pointed out that learning occurs based on rewards. Through trial and error, consumers learn which behaviors lead to rewards and which do not. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.

23 Operant Conditioning It suggests that behavior depends on its expected consequences or rewards. Hence, managers can influence employees’ behavior by manipulating the consequences or rewards. Operant conditioning theory relies heavily on the law of effect, which states that a person tends to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences, and tends not to repeat behavior that accompanied by unfavorable consequences.

24 Reinforcement of Behavior
Positive Positive outcome Strengthen likelihood Negative Negative outcome Encourages behavior The two types of reinforcement are positive and negative. It is important to realize that both of these influence responses. Positive reinforcement is a good thing that happens which rewards a behavior – going to the gym made you feel good so you go every other day. A negative outcome is a bad thing that happens which encourages a behavior. You ate a donut every morning for breakfast so gained a lot of weight over the past week. This causes you to go to the gym every other day and to stop eating donuts. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.

25 Reinforcement of Behavior
Extinction A learned response is no longer reinforced The link is eliminated between stimulus and reward Punishment A negative reward is awarded for discouraging an unacceptable behavior. Extinction and forgetting are easily confused. But think of what the words mean. If the response, is forgotten it can be brought back just by remembering. If it is extinct, it is unlearned. The link between the stimulus and the response is destroyed. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.

26 Observational Learning (modeling or Social learning)
A process by which individuals learn behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of such behavior Observational learning occurs NOT through responses directly to the consumer but by observation of the behavior and responses of others. Marketers often use role models in their advertising so that consumers can understand the rewards of purchasing the advertisers’ products. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.

27 Attention processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes Always remember that managers and leaders are closely observed by subordinates; this may even lead to unintended learning.

28 Shaping Behavior: A Managerial Tool
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to desired response. Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.

29 Four Methods of Shaping Behavior
Positive reinforcement: Following a response with something pleasant, e.g., boss praises an employee for job well done or Instructor suggests good grades on supplying correct answers Negative reinforcement: Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant, e.g., If your college instructor asks a question and you don not know the answer, looking through your lecture notes is likely to preclude your being called on. This negative reinforcement because you have learned that looking busily through your notes prevents the instructor from calling on you.

30 Four Methods of Shaping Behavior, Contd.,
3. Punishment: Causing unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior, e.g., giving an employee a two-day suspension from work without pay for showing up is an example of punishment. 4. Extinction: Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior, e.g.,College instructors who wish to discourage students from asking questions in class can eliminate this behavior in their students by ignoring those who raise their hands to ask questions.

31 Schedules of Reinforcement

32 Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)

33 Behavioral Modification
Problem-solving Five step Model Identify critical behaviors Develop baseline data Identify behavioral consequences Apply intervention Evaluate performance improvement

34 Class Exercise ETHICAL DILEMMA:  Is OB Mod a form of manipulation?  If it is, is it unethical for a manager to manipulate the behavior of an employee? 

35 OB MOD Organizational Applications
Well Pay Reduce absenteeism by rewarding attendance. Employee Discipline The use of punishment can be counter-productive. Developing Training Programs OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness. Self-management Reduces the need for external management control.


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