2 L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E SDefine the key biographical characteristicsIdentify two types of abilityLearning and Theories of LearningShape the behavior of others.Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement.Specific Organizational Applications
3 OB MODEL Independent Variables Individual Behaviour Age Gender Marital StatusTenureGroup BehaviourOrganizational SystemDependent VariablesEmployee ProductivityAbsenteeismTurnoverCitizenshipJob Satisfaction
5 Relationship Between Biographical Factors and Other Outcomes AgeGenderMarital StatusTenure
6 AGE Age and Job performance Age and Productivity Common Notion: Job performance declines with increase ageOn the other hand: People with older age bring positive qualities to the organizationAge and ProductivityStrong and significant relationOlder people and lacking in flexibility, resistance to change
7 Age (Cont…….) Age and Absenteeism Age and Turnover Inverse relationMore regular and less chances to quitAge and TurnoverLess chances to quit JobLess chances outside the organizationAge and Job SatisfactionResearchers found mixed results between these two variablesPositive relations found in some studies.
8 Gender Male and Female management styles Working Mother Issues Females are more inclined to participation, democratic behaviour and power sharing.Males are good in instant decisions.Working Mother IssuesGender and Absenteeism & Turnover
9 Marital Status No enough evidence on this relation Generally married people are more likely to be settledStill studies need to discover the relations between divorced and separated relations on Job satisfaction, Absenteeism and Turnover.
10 Tenure CVs reflect past behaviour of organizational commitment Seniority (Tenure) directly relate with job satisfactionPast behaviours can predict future behaviours.Studies show that employees remain with organization because of their peer circle.
12 Dimensions of Intellectual Ability 1. Number Aptitude: Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic2. Verbal Comprehension: Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other.3. Perceptual Speed: Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately.4. Inductive Reasoning: Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem.
13 Dimensions of Intellectual Ability, Contd., 5. Deductive Reasoning: Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument.6. Spatial Visualization: Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed.7. Memory: Ability to retain and recall past experiences.
14 Physical AbilityThe capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity (swiftness or precision), strength, and similar characteristics.
15 Nine Physical Abilities, Contd., Dynamic strength: Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time.Trunk strength: Ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles.Static strength: Ability to exert force against external objects.Explosive strength: Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts.Extent flexibility: Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible.
16 Nine Physical Abilities, Contd., 6. Dynamic flexibility: Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements.7. Body coordination: Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body.8. Balance: Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance.9. Stamina: Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time.
18 Learning All complex behaviours are learned What is learning? Any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience.First, learning involves change.Second, the change must be relatively permanent.Third, our definition is concerned with behavior.Finally, some form of experience is necessary for learning.Theories of LearningClassical Conditioning theoryContributor : PavlovOperant Conditioning theoryB. F SkinnerSocial Learning
19 Classical Conditioning A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.Many of you may be familiar with Pavlov’s dog. In this situation, Pavlov sounded a bell, then applied meat paste to the dog’s tongue. Over time, the dog began to associate the bell with the meat paste. Eventually, when Pavlov rang the bell, the dog would salivate because he expected the meat paste to be applied. What happened was learning or conditioning. The dog learned that the meat paste, which is called the unconditioned stimulus, was associated with the bell, which is the conditioned stimulus. He began to have a conditioned response to the bell when he learned that the bell meant food. The experiment is provided in more detail on the following slide.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.
20 Model of Classical Conditioning This is Pavlov’s experiment. As explained on the previous slide, the dog learned, was conditioned, to salivate from the bell after it was repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus of the meat paste.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.
21 ExamplesSAMBASaudi AramcoApple and Steve Job’s innovativeness
22 Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.Instrumental conditioning also requires a link between a stimulus and a response. The difference between this and classical conditioning is that the learned response is the one that is most satisfactory of responses. The famous psychologist B.F. Skinner is associated with this type of conditioning. He pointed out that learning occurs based on rewards. Through trial and error, consumers learn which behaviors lead to rewards and which do not.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.
23 Operant ConditioningIt suggests that behavior depends on its expected consequences or rewards. Hence, managers can influence employees’ behavior by manipulating the consequences or rewards.Operant conditioning theory relies heavily on the law of effect, which states that a person tends to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences, and tends not to repeat behavior that accompanied by unfavorable consequences.
24 Reinforcement of Behavior PositivePositive outcomeStrengthen likelihoodNegativeNegative outcomeEncourages behaviorThe two types of reinforcement are positive and negative. It is important to realize that both of these influence responses. Positive reinforcement is a good thing that happens which rewards a behavior – going to the gym made you feel good so you go every other day. A negative outcome is a bad thing that happens which encourages a behavior. You ate a donut every morning for breakfast so gained a lot of weight over the past week. This causes you to go to the gym every other day and to stop eating donuts.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.
25 Reinforcement of Behavior ExtinctionA learned response is no longer reinforcedThe link is eliminated between stimulus and rewardPunishmentA negative reward is awarded for discouraging an unacceptable behavior.Extinction and forgetting are easily confused. But think of what the words mean. If the response, is forgotten it can be brought back just by remembering. If it is extinct, it is unlearned. The link between the stimulus and the response is destroyed.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.
26 Observational Learning (modeling or Social learning) A process by which individuals learn behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of such behaviorObservational learning occurs NOT through responses directly to the consumer but by observation of the behavior and responses of others. Marketers often use role models in their advertising so that consumers can understand the rewards of purchasing the advertisers’ products.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, and customized by Dr. George Thomas, PSU.
27 Attention processesRetention processesMotor reproduction processesReinforcement processesAlways remember that managers and leaders are closely observed by subordinates; this may even lead to unintended learning.
28 Shaping Behavior: A Managerial Tool Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to desired response.Key ConceptsReinforcement is required to change behavior.Some rewards are more effective than others.The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
29 Four Methods of Shaping Behavior Positive reinforcement: Following a response with something pleasant, e.g., boss praises an employee for job well done or Instructor suggests good grades on supplying correct answersNegative reinforcement: Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant, e.g., If your college instructor asks a question and you don not know the answer, looking through your lecture notes is likely to preclude your being called on. This negative reinforcement because you have learned that looking busily through your notes prevents the instructor from calling on you.
30 Four Methods of Shaping Behavior, Contd., 3. Punishment: Causing unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior, e.g., giving an employee a two-day suspension from work without pay for showing up is an example of punishment.4. Extinction: Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior, e.g.,College instructors who wish to discourage students from asking questions in class can eliminate this behavior in their students by ignoring those who raise their hands to ask questions.
34 Class ExerciseETHICAL DILEMMA: Is OB Mod a form of manipulation? If it is, is it unethical for a manager to manipulate the behavior of an employee?
35 OB MOD Organizational Applications Well PayReduce absenteeism by rewarding attendance.Employee DisciplineThe use of punishment can be counter-productive.Developing Training ProgramsOB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.Self-managementReduces the need for external management control.