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Organizational Behavior

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior
12th Edition by Stephen Robbins Reference Book: Organizational Behavior by- Fred Luthans PowerPoint by Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf

2 Foundations of Individual Behavior
Chapter# 2

3 Chapter # 2 Chapter Outline
Contrast the two types of Ability. Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB. Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB. Define learning and outline the principles of the three major theories of learning. Define Shaping Behavior, and how it can be used in OB. Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

4 Individual Behavior Variables
Ability Biographical characteristics Learning Personality Emotions Values Attitudes Perception Motivation Individual decision making Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

5 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT
Ability “An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job” An assessment of What a person can do. Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

6 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT
Ability Made up of two sets of factors: Intellectual Abilities The abilities needed to perform mental activities. Thinking, Reasoning and Problem Solving. General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of overall intelligence. Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, strength, and physical exertion. Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

7 Dimensions of Intellectual Ability
Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

8 Biographical Characteristics
Objective and easily obtained personal characteristics. Such as, Age Older workers bring experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. Gender Few differences between men and women that affect job performance. Race Natural orientation among people with similar races. Tenure People with job tenure (seniority at a job) are more productive, absent less frequently, have lower turnover, and are more satisfied. Religion Education Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

9 Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Involves Change Is Relatively Permanent Is Acquired Through Experience Learning components: Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

10 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT
Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience. Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

11 Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s Dog Experiment. Key Concepts: Unconditioned stimulus A naturally occurring phenomenon. Unconditioned response The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus. Conditioned stimulus An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation. Conditioned response The response to the artificial stimulus. This is a passive form of learning. It is reflexive and not voluntary – not the best theory for OB learning. Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

12 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT
Operant Conditioning Behavior is a function of it’s consequences. Operant Behavior means Voluntary and Learned behavior. People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. Behavior is influenced through Reinforcement or Punishment Pleasing consequences increase likelihood of repetition and Unrewarded/punished behavior is unlikely to be repeated. Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

13 Social-Learning Theory
Based on the idea that people can also learn indirectly: by observation, reading, or just hearing about someone else’s experiences. Attentional processes Must recognize and pay attention to critical features to learn. Retention processes Model’s actions must be remembered to be learned. Motor reproduction processes Watching the model’s behavior must be converted to doing. Reinforcement processes Positive incentives motivate learners. Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

14 Shaping behavior: A Managerial Tool
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Four Methods of Shaping Behavior: Positive reinforcement Providing a reward for a desired behavior (learning) Negative reinforcement Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs (learning) Punishment Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior (“unlearning”) Extinction Eliminating any reinforcement of a behavior to stop it’s repetition. (“unlearning”) Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

15 Behavior Modification (OB Mod)
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work settings. Steps of OB Mod program: 1 Identify critical behaviors 2 Develop baseline data 3 Identify behavioral consequences 4 Develop and apply intervention 5 Evaluate performance improvement Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

16 Applying Behavior Modification
Well Pay Vs Sick Pay Employee Discipline Developing Training Programs Self- Management Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

17 Exercise to Apply OB Mod
In groups of Four, spend15 minutes brainstorming to identify specific situations where students Behavior is negative and for any one situation develop a strategy to influence the students to modify their behavior. Best way is where students would not realize that they are being influenced. Consider the topics: Learning Shaping Behavior Behavior Modification Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT

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