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Organizational Behavior PowerPoint by Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf 12th Edition by Stephen Robbins Reference Book: Organizational Behavior by- Fred Luthans.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior PowerPoint by Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf 12th Edition by Stephen Robbins Reference Book: Organizational Behavior by- Fred Luthans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior PowerPoint by Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf 12th Edition by Stephen Robbins Reference Book: Organizational Behavior by- Fred Luthans

2 Foundations of Individual Behavior Chapter# 2

3 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT3 Chapter # 2 Chapter Outline Contrast the two types of Ability. Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB. Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB. Define learning and outline the principles of the three major theories of learning. Define Shaping Behavior, and how it can be used in OB.

4 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT4 Individual Behavior Variables Ability Biographical characteristics Learning Personality Emotions Values Attitudes Perception Motivation Individual decision making

5 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT5 Ability “An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job” An assessment of What a person can do.

6 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT6 Ability  Made up of two sets of factors: Intellectual Abilities  The abilities needed to perform mental activities.  Thinking, Reasoning and Problem Solving.  General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of overall intelligence. Physical Abilities  The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, strength, and physical exertion.

7 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT7 Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

8 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT8 Biographical Characteristics  Objective and easily obtained personal characteristics. Such as, Age  Older workers bring experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. Gender  Few differences between men and women that affect job performance. Race  Natural orientation among people with similar races. Tenure  People with job tenure (seniority at a job) are more productive, absent less frequently, have lower turnover, and are more satisfied. Religion Education

9 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT9 Learning  Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Involves Change Is Relatively Permanent Is Acquired Through Experience Learning components:

10 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT10 Theories of Learning  Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.  Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.  Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience.

11 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT11 Classical Conditioning  Pavlov’s Dog Experiment.  Key Concepts: Unconditioned stimulus  A naturally occurring phenomenon. Unconditioned response  The naturally occurring response to a natural stimulus. Conditioned stimulus  An artificial stimulus introduced into the situation. Conditioned response  The response to the artificial stimulus. This is a passive form of learning. It is reflexive and not voluntary – not the best theory for OB learning.

12 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT12 Operant Conditioning  Behavior is a function of it’s consequences.  Operant Behavior means Voluntary and Learned behavior.  People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want.  Behavior is influenced through Reinforcement or Punishment  Pleasing consequences increase likelihood of repetition and Unrewarded/punished behavior is unlikely to be repeated.

13 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT13 Social-Learning Theory  Based on the idea that people can also learn indirectly: by observation, reading, or just hearing about someone else’s experiences. Attentional processes  Must recognize and pay attention to critical features to learn. Retention processes  Model’s actions must be remembered to be learned. Motor reproduction processes  Watching the model’s behavior must be converted to doing. Reinforcement processes  Positive incentives motivate learners.

14 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT14 Shaping behavior: A Managerial Tool  Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.  Four Methods of Shaping Behavior: Positive reinforcement  Providing a reward for a desired behavior (learning) Negative reinforcement  Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs (learning) Punishment  Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior (“unlearning”) Extinction  Eliminating any reinforcement of a behavior to stop it’s repetition. (“unlearning”)

15 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT15 Behavior Modification (OB Mod)  The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work settings. 1 Identify critical behaviors 2 Develop baseline data 3 Identify behavioral consequences 4 Develop and apply intervention 5 Evaluate performance improvement Steps of OB Mod program:

16 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT16 Applying Behavior Modification  Well Pay Vs Sick Pay  Employee Discipline  Developing Training Programs  Self- Management

17 Prof. Jahanzaib Yousaf, PCIT17 Exercise to Apply OB Mod In groups of Four, spend15 minutes brainstorming to identify specific situations where students Behavior is negative and for any one situation develop a strategy to influence the students to modify their behavior. Best way is where students would not realize that they are being influenced. Consider the topics: Learning Shaping Behavior Behavior Modification

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