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Organizational Behavior 15th Ed Diversity in Organizations Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-1 Robbins and Judge Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior 15th Ed Diversity in Organizations Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-1 Robbins and Judge Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior 15th Ed Diversity in Organizations Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-1 Robbins and Judge Chapter 2

2 Chapter 2 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter you should be able to: Describe the two major forms of workforce diversity Describe the two major forms of workforce diversity Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant to OB Recognize stereotypes and understand how they function in organizational settings Recognize stereotypes and understand how they function in organizational settings Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB Contrast intellectual from physical ability Contrast intellectual from physical ability Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-2

3 Describe the Two Major Forms of Workforce Diversity Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-3 LO 1 Surface-Level Diversity Deep-Level Diversity Diversity Management

4 Describe the Two Major Forms of Workforce Diversity Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-4 LO 1 Insert Exhibit 2.1

5 Biographical Characteristics and How Are They Relevant to OB Age Age Belief is widespread that job performance declines with increasing age. Belief is widespread that job performance declines with increasing age. The workforce is aging. The workforce is aging. U.S. legislation that, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. U.S. legislation that, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-5 LO 2 Those readily available in a personnel file

6 Biographical Characteristics and How Are They Relevant to OB Sex Sex Few issues initiate more debates, misconceptions, and unsupported opinions than whether women perform as well on jobs as men do. Few issues initiate more debates, misconceptions, and unsupported opinions than whether women perform as well on jobs as men do. Few, if any, important differences between men and women affect job performance. Few, if any, important differences between men and women affect job performance. Psychological studies have found women are more agreeable and willing to conform to authority, whereas men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success, but those differences are minor. Psychological studies have found women are more agreeable and willing to conform to authority, whereas men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success, but those differences are minor. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-6 LO 2 Those readily available in a personnel file

7 Biographical Characteristics and How Are They Relevant to OB Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Employees tend to favor colleagues of their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, pay raises. Employees tend to favor colleagues of their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, pay raises. Attitudes towards Affirmative Action Attitudes towards Affirmative Action African-Americans generally do worse than whites in employment decisions. African-Americans generally do worse than whites in employment decisions. No statistical difference between Whites and African- Americans in observed absence rates, applied social skills at work, or accident rates. No statistical difference between Whites and African- Americans in observed absence rates, applied social skills at work, or accident rates. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-7 LO 2 Those readily available in a personnel file

8 Biographical Characteristics and How Are They Relevant to OB Disability Disability A person is disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. A person is disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. The reasonable accommodation is problematic for employers. The reasonable accommodation is problematic for employers. Strong biases exist against those with mental impairment. Strong biases exist against those with mental impairment. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-8 LO 2 Those readily available in a personnel file

9 Biographical Characteristics and How Are They Relevant to OB Tenure Tenure The issue of the impact of job seniority on job performance has been subject to misconceptions and speculations. The issue of the impact of job seniority on job performance has been subject to misconceptions and speculations. Religion Religion Although employees are protected by U.S. federal law regarding their religion, it is still an issue in the workplace. Although employees are protected by U.S. federal law regarding their religion, it is still an issue in the workplace. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-9 LO 2 Those readily available in a personnel file

10 Biographical Characteristics and How Are They Relevant to OB Sexual orientation Sexual orientation Federal law does not protect employees against discrimination based on sexual orientation. Federal law does not protect employees against discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gender identity Gender identity Often referred to as transgender employees, this topic encompasses those individuals who change genders. Often referred to as transgender employees, this topic encompasses those individuals who change genders. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-10 LO 2 Those not readily available in a personnel file…

11 Stereotypes and How They Function in Organizational Settings “Discrimination” is to note a difference between things. “Discrimination” is to note a difference between things. Unfair discrimination is assuming stereotypes about groups and refusing to recognize individual differences. Unfair discrimination is assuming stereotypes about groups and refusing to recognize individual differences. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-11 LO 3

12 Define Intellectual Ability and Demonstrate Its Relevance to OB Two types Two types Intellectual abilities Intellectual abilities Physical abilities Physical abilities Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-12 LO 4 Ability is an individual’s current capacity to perform various tasks in a job

13 Define Intellectual Ability and Demonstrate Its Relevance to OB Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities—thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities—thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. Most societies place a high value on intelligence, and for good reason. Most societies place a high value on intelligence, and for good reason. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-13 LO 4

14 Define Intellectual Ability and Demonstrate Its Relevance to OB Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-14 LO 4 Intellectual Ability Number Aptitude Verbal Comprehension Perceptual Speed Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Spatial Visualization Memory Exhibit 2.2

15 Contrast Intellectual from Physical Ability Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. The three main categories of physical ability are… The three main categories of physical ability are… Strength Strength Flexibility Flexibility And Other characteristics And Other characteristics Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-15 LO 5

16 Contrast Intellectual from Physical Ability Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-16 LO 5 Insert Exhibit 2.3

17 Contrast Intellectual from Physical Ability Importance of ability at work increases difficulty in formulating workplace policies that recognize disabilities. Importance of ability at work increases difficulty in formulating workplace policies that recognize disabilities. Recognizing that individuals have different abilities that can be taken into account when making hiring decisions is not problematic. Recognizing that individuals have different abilities that can be taken into account when making hiring decisions is not problematic. It is also possible to make accommodations for disabilities. It is also possible to make accommodations for disabilities. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-17 LO 5

18 Describe How Organizations Manage Diversity Effectively Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-18 LO 6 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees Diversity in Groups Effective Diversity Programs

19 Describe How Organizations Manage Diversity Effectively Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-19 LO 6 Effective Diversity Programs Teach Legal Framework Teach the Market Advantages Foster the Skills and Abilities of All Workers

20 Managerial Implications and Summary Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-20 This chapter looked at diversity from many perspectives paying particular attention to three variables— biographical characteristics, ability, and diversity programs.

21 Managerial Implications and Summary Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall2-21 Diversity programs Selection An effective selection process will improve the fit between employees and job requirements. Diversity Management Diversity management must be an ongoing commitment that crosses all levels of the organization.

22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-22


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