Presentation on theme: "10 th American History American History Unit II – Becoming a World Power Chapter 7 Section 1- The Lure of Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:
10 th American History American History Unit II – Becoming a World Power Chapter 7 Section 1- The Lure of Imperialism
The Main Idea The United States entered the imperialist competition later than the European powers but soon extended its influence in the Pacific region. Reading Focus What inspired the imperialist activity of the late 1800s? How did the United States take control of Hawaii? How did the United States gain influence in China? How did the United States exert influence in Japan? The Lure of Imperialism
Several industrialized nations competed to gain territory throughout the world. The Industrial Revolution had increased wealth in many nations, causing them to look elsewhere for markets and opportunities for investment. An increase in trade had brought about the rise of large navies to protect trading interests. These navies needed strategically placed bases for refueling and repairs. Ideologies such as Social Darwinism justified European expansion into Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
The Imperialist Powers The Imperialists Great Britain FranceBelgiumGermanyJapanIdeology Nationalism, or love of one’s country Social Darwinism, a belief in the cultural superiority of western nations over less industrially developed nations Christian missionaries sought to convert believers of other faiths.
Imperialist Activity Imperialism: Extending a nation’s power over other lands. Causes of U.S. Expansionism –Economic- Desire for new markets and raw materials –Military- Desire for naval bases and coaling stations. –Ideological- desire to bring Christianity, western-style culture and democracy to other peoples. Scramble for territory- 1800’s –European powers- Africa, Asia and dominating the economy of Latin America –America believed it was its “manifest destiny” to expand westward to the Pacific Ocean, and now people sought lands even further west.
Imperialist Activity What inspired the imperialist activity of the late 1800’s? What motivated industrialized nations to expand? How do you rank the three reasons for imperialistic expansion?
Alaska Russian Fur traders After 1799- Russian, British and American fur traders. 1867- Sea Otters growing scarce and Russia recovering from Crimean War offers to sell Alaska to U.S. Sec. of State William Seward was eager to buy. Potential of fur, timber, and metals. “Seward’s Icebox” and “Seward’s Folly”- bought for $7.2 million. “Seward’s Icebox” and “Seward’s Folly”- bought for $7.2 million.
Taking Control of Hawaii British explorer James Cook first visited Hawaii in 1778. Hawaii was ideally located for coaling stations and bases for ships trading between the U.S. and Asia. American missionaries and others came to Hawaii and raised crops, particularly sugarcane. The sugar industry grew and gained influence and control. King Kalakaua negotiated a treaty that made Hawaiian sugar cheap to import to the United States. Sugar planters overthrew Queen Liliuokalani with the help of the U.S. marines. Sugar tycoon Sanford Dole became president of the Republic of Hawaii. Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898.
Influence in Hawaii Early Contact –British in 1778 –Chief Kamehameha- united eight islands and established a kingdom. –Americans arrive- traders and missionaries. –Foreigners brought diseases. Sugar cane and power –Investors in the Sugar Cane industry began to increase their control and their profits. Sanford B. Dole. –King Kalakaua got a treaty in 1875 to allow Hawaiian sugar to enter U.S. tax free and make it the cheapest sugar. Kamehameha designed a fleet of war canoes called peleleu and were mounted with guns for his conquest of the Hawaiian Islands.
Taking Control of Hawaii Plotting against the king and the end of the monarchy –Hawaiian League- secret organization to overthrow the king and establish democracy- American business leaders, planters and traders. –Bayonet constitution- forced on King Kalakaua- he lost power, his people couldn’t vote and Pearl Harbor went to the Americans. –Sugar treaty rejected Queen Liliuokalani- planned to restore power of the monarchy. –4 boatloads of U.S. Marines surround palace and Queen surrenders. –Sanford B. Dole, sugar tycoon, chosen as president and Hawaii declared to be under U.S. protection. Annexation- Not all presidents were in favor of this. McKinley would vote for it. Hawaii become U.S. territory and finally state in 1959.
Taking Control of Hawaii Why was Hawaii an ideal acquisition for the United States? In what ways did Captain James Cook’s visit to Hawaii have both good and bad results? How did American Businessmen, traders and planters protect their economic interests in Hawaii? Why was ceding Pearl Harbor to the U.S. so significant? What do you think Quieen Liliuokalani could have done to save her kingdom?
The Open Door Policy gives the United States an equal footing in China. European powers gained spheres of influence in China. The United States feared it would be shut out of the valuable China trade. Secretary of State John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy, giving all nations equal trading rights in China. Increased foreign presence in China led to the Boxer Rebellion. Western nations cooperated to quell the rebellion and continue exploitation of Chinese trade.
Influence in China Before 1842 Foreigners were only allowed to trade in Guangzhou. 1842- British force China to open 5 ports and for the next 50 years foreigners overran the country. Japan, Russia, France, Germany, and Great Britain (U.S. too late) Spheres of Influence- Japan, Russia, France, Germany, and Great Britain (U.S. too late) U.S. Sec. of State John Hay proposed the in 1899- all nations have equal trading rights. No one really rejected it so he announced it as being approved. U.S. Sec. of State John Hay proposed the “Open Door Policy” in 1899- all nations have equal trading rights. No one really rejected it so he announced it as being approved. Boxer Rebellion- –Secret society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists- Boxers. Attacked foreigners and Missionaries –20,000 foreign troops rushed in (2,000 American) –China forced to sign settlement agreement
Open Door Policy and Boxer Rebellion- 3:28 min Open Door Policy and Boxer Rebellion- 3:28 min.
Influence in China How did the Boxer Rebellion ultimately help the United States? What motivated the Boxers to attack foreigners in Beijing? What affect did the Open Door Policy have on China?
Diplomacy and naval superiority help the U.S. gain influence in Japan. Japan was isolated and unindustrialized until the mid-1800s. Commodore Matthew Perry brought four steamships into Tokyo Bay in 1853 to pressure Japan to open its ports to trade. Japan quickly became an industrial and military power to compete with the West.
Opening Japan (01:49)
Forbidden Entry (07:01)
Influence in Japan 1853- Commodore Matthew Perry sent to get trade treaty with Japan. Japanese awed by U.S. naval strength- Treaty of Kanagwa 1854. Japanese modernization Japan seized Taiwan in 1895.
Influence in Japan Why did the Russo-Japanese War begin? How did Japan become a world power?
Russo-Japanese War Desire by both Japan and Russia to develop 'spheres of influence' in the Far East, mainly at the expense of China. Japan knew that they could not win a long war fought over a vast expanse, but they could win a short localized war. Through the mediation of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt peace was made in September at Portsmouth, N.H.1905 The Portsmouth Treaty ended the Russo- Japanese War. Russia had suffered severe defeats and Japan was in financial difficulties. The disastrous outcome of the war for Russia was one of the immediate causes of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Japan gained the position of a world power, becoming the first non-European and non- American imperialist modern state. Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
Root-Takahira Agreement- 1905 A pledge to maintain the status quo in the Far East. Japan would be allowed to annex Korea, and pursue interests in Manchuria Recognition of China's independence and territorial integrity, and support for continuation of the Open Door policy An agreement to mutual consultation in the event of future Far Eastern crises. Japan will not meddle with U.S. colonies in the Pacific. T. Roosevelt sends the “Great White Fleet” of 16 battleships on a 43,000 mile 2 year trip around the world in 1907. Stopped at 20 points on six continents. Can’t let the Japanese think we are weak.