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 IMPERIALISM—the extension of a nation’s power over other lands  Imperialistic thoughts—Great Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, and Japan  ECONOMIC.

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Presentation on theme: " IMPERIALISM—the extension of a nation’s power over other lands  Imperialistic thoughts—Great Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, and Japan  ECONOMIC."— Presentation transcript:


2  IMPERIALISM—the extension of a nation’s power over other lands  Imperialistic thoughts—Great Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, and Japan  ECONOMIC INTERESTS  Industrialized countries were looking at other nations for new customers  Africa, Asia, Latin America

3  MILITARY NEEDS  Industrialized nations created strong navies to defend their shores and protect trading interests  Navies needed bases where ships could refuel and make repairs  Nations needed strategic locations

4  IDEOLOGY  Two popular ideologies for imperialism:  1) a strong sense of NATIONALISM (love of one’s country)  2) feeling of cultural superiority  Social Darwinists believed that when nations competed only the strongest survived

5  THE SCRAMBLE FOR TERRITORY  Late 1800s—European imperialist powers had taken control of vast territories in Africa and Asia  The British Empire rules about 25% of the world’s land and population  Mid 1800s—Americans believed it was their manifest destiny to expand to the Pacific Ocean. Now people thought the USA should expand beyond that

6  Hawaii was an ideal spot for coaling stations and naval bases for ships going to and from Asia  EARLY CONTACT  1778—British explorer, Captain James Cook visited Hawaii  After Cook’s visit, Hawaii’s Chief Kamehameha united the 8 major islands under his leadership

7  He created a monarchy and began a profitable trade in sandalwood  1820s—US ships began arriving in Hawaii frequently, bringing traders and missionaries  Missionaries came to convert natives to Christianity  Missionaries and their families settled down and began raising crops (sugarcane)

8  Foreigners also brought diseases that the Hawaiians were not immune to.  Population declined—300,000 (1770s) to 40,000 (1893)  SUGAR INTERESTS GAIN POWER  Americans had a sweet tooth  Sugar planters became very rich

9  Planters needed workers  Few native Hawaiians left, so people brought in from China, Japan, Philippines  1874—Kalakaua becomes king  Americans had gained control of land and economy  Kalakaua was nationalistic and promised to put the Hawaiians back in power

10  Kalakaua signed a treaty with the USA to send sugar to America tax free  Sugar tycoons wanted more power over Hawaiian affairs  PLOTTING AGAINST THE KING  A group of business leaders, planters, and trades formed a secret society called the Hawaiian League

11  Purpose—overthrow the monarchy and establish a democracy in Hawaii under control of the Americans  Conflict between business and King escalated in 1886  The US wanted Pearl Harbor in exchange for renewing the sugar treaty  King Kalahaua would not give up independence of any part of the islands

12  Hawaiian League forced the King to sign a new constitution at gunpoint in July 1887  King called it the BAYONET CONSTITUTION  It severely restricted the King’s powers and deprived most Hawaiians of the vote  King forced to give up Pearl Harbor

13  American warships had a permanent home in Hawaii  Sugar planters had political control over Hawaii  US revoked the Sugar treaty in1890 to support sugar producers on the mainland  Hawaiian business leaders thought the only option was to become part of the US

14  Secret talks about annexation began  END OF THE MONARCHY  King Kalakaua died in 1891  His sister, Liliuokalani, became queen  She was a nationalist that wanted to do away with the bayonet constitution  January 1893—Queen announced the monarchy would be restored

15  In response, business leaders plotted to over thrown her  American Minister to Hawaii, John L. Stevens, ordered four boatloads of Marines to take up positions about the royal palace, aiming cannons and machine guns at the building  The rebels declared an end to the monarchy

16  Queen Liliuokalani surrendered under protest January 17, 1893  Rebel leaders formed a new government with Sanford B. Dole as president  Stevens recognized the new government and said the islands were under the protection of the US, all without official authorization

17  ANNEXATION  President Cleveland put the treaty on hold and ordered an investigation  Investigator condemned the revolt and offered to put the Queen back on the throne  Cleveland agreed but Dole would not step down

18  Cleveland would not use the military to back the Queen but he would not support annexation either  He passed the issue to the next president, William McKinley  McKinley favored annexation  Congress narrowly voted in favor in 1898.  Hawaii was now a territory and became the 50 th state in 1959.  1993—Congress formally apologized for the US’s role in overthrowing Liluokalania

19  China stayed isolated from the rest of the world  Foreign traders could only go to the port at Guangzhou  1842—British forced China to open 5 ports  US also gained greater trading privileges  China spent the next 50 years keeping foreign influence out

20  1895—Japan took over Taiwan  Russia, France, Germany, and Great Britain carved out their own SPHERES OF INFLUENCE  A geographic area where an outside nation exerts special economic or political control  US proposed the OPEN DOOR POLICY in 1899

21  The aim was equal trading rights in China  No other countries agreed to the open door policy  Secret society known as the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists began attacking foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians  This society was known to westerners as the Boxers

22  June 1900—the Boxers laid siege to the capital Beijing in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion  Western nations rushed 20,000 troops including 2,000 Americans  The troops quelled the rebellion  September 1901—China signed a humbling settlement agreement  Western nations realized that competition would hurt Chinese trade

23  Japan was not known as an imperialist nation  Mid-1800s—US pressures Japan to open its ports to trade  1853—President Fillmore send Commodore Matthew Perry and 4 ships into Tokyo Bay  Japan had never seen steamships before

24  Japan knew it couldn’t defend itself against a modern navy  1854—Japan signs a treaty with the US opening up trade  Japan began a rapid modernization program  1904—RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR broke out  Spring 1905—both sides ask President Roosevelt to broker a peace treaty

25  Both sides met in Portsmouth, NH to finalize a treaty  Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize  Japan was clear victor over Russia and hungry for territory  They wanted to expand in the Pacific to balance out US interests

26 RRoosevelt wanted to show how powerful the US military was 11907—4 squadrons of battleships, known as the Great White Fleet, began a 43,000-mile round-the-world journey LLed by Rear Admiral Charles Sperry FFleet stopped in 20 ports on 6 continents, including Japan TThe fleet returned home in 1909 TTHE END

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