Presentation on theme: "Research Methods Experimental Research Descriptive Methods"— Presentation transcript:
1Research Methods Experimental Research Descriptive Methods Correlational ResearchBiological Research
2Step 3- Research DesignThe hypothesis must be tested by using the appropriate research methodsWhat type of study would best test your hypothesis?What participants will you use?What will be the procedure of your study?
3The most powerful research method is the experiment, in which an experimenter manipulates and controls the variables to determine cause and effect.
4Experimental MethodThis is the ONLY research design that can examine a single factor’s effect on a particular behaviorA study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable.Determines a cause and effect relationship between variablesVariable: Any characteristic that can differ between observations or measurements
5Step 3-Designing a Study Variables are a condition or characteristic that is subject to change either within situations or individualsThere are two types of variables in every study:Independent variable:Factor that is manipulatedDependent variable:Behavior/variable that is measured
6VariablesIndependent Variable is the variable is directly and purposefully manipulated by the experimenterThis is done to see how the other variables will be affected
7So, what will happen if…?Dependent Variable is the behavior that is measured because it is expected to change due to the manipulation of the independent variable.What will happen If I move all of my front row students to the back, what will happen?
8The goal of any experiment is to learn how the dependent variable is affected by (depends on) the independent variable.
9Identify the Variable Independent and Dependent? Developmental psychologists want to know if exposing children to differing amounts of public television improves their reading skills.IV: different types of diagrams; DV: memoryIV: film type (violent or nonviolent); DV: heart rateIV: name tags; DV: happiness at work
10Did you get it?In this study, the amount of public television is the Independent VariableThe researchers were looking to observe a change in reading skills, which makes it the Dependent Variable
11Name the Variables!A clinical psychologist is interested in how heart rate is affected by viewing a violent film as opposed to a nonviolent film
12Did you get it?The Independent Variable is this study is the film type (violent or nonviolent)The change in heart rate is the behavior observed which makes it the Dependent Variable
13Try another oneCognitive psychologists are interested in what types of diagrams are easiest for people to remember
14What are the Variables?The different types of diagrams are the Independent VariableWhat behavior were the researchers were observing? Memory, which is the Dependent Variable
15OK, Last One…An industrial/organizational psychologist tests to see if wearing name tags makes employees happier with their work
16What are the variables? The name tags are the Independent Variable And the observed behavior was happiness at work, which is the Dependent Variable
17Step 3-Designing the Study Who will you study? Participants in a study are individuals in an experiment whose behaviors are observed.This information will produce dataAll have something in common which is based on what the researcher is testing
18Participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups: The Control Group-(Comparison group)This group does not receive the independent variableIt does not receive the treatmentThe Experimental Group- receives new treatmentThis group “receives” the independent variable
20Descriptive MethodsThis research method is used to observe and record behavior without producing a casual explanation
21Types of ResearchDescriptive Methods involve describing events that already exist- -Naturalistic Observation -Case Study -SurveysDescriptive research methods: involves describing events that already exist rather than performing a manipulation of an independent variable and observing the changes
22This research method is used to observe and record behavior without producing an explanation
23Naturalistic Observation A systematic observation what many people do under natural conditions, without interference.Another example: Jane Goodall’s study of gorilla’s in the wildThis design may yield interesting and enlightening results. But, the procedure itself may produce bias as the presence of the observer may change the behavior being studied
24Follow the link below to review a very famous naturalistic study performed by David Rosenhan who pretended to be mentally ill to gain admission into a psychiatric hospitalBeing Sane in Insane Places, Rosenhan (1973)
25Ask questions…Surveys are another method of gathering data from a wide selection of peopleA study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors, based on people’s responses to specific questionsUnfortunately most surveys rely on self report and not all participants are honest!A set of questions is posed to a large group of participantsHave to be careful because you may not have a representative sample:Do the people who answered your questions represent the overall population?If it is representative – you can make generalizationsSelf-report – have to rely on what people say
26Case StudyA thorough description of the unusual person that relies on naturalistic observation but focuses on a single person intensively.These are well-suited to observe unusual behaviors or conditionsAre well suited for exploring unusual behavioral conditions – but their generalizability is limited.
27Example of a Case StudyPhineas Gage was the foreman of a railway construction gang. On 13th. September 1848, an accidental explosion blew his tamping iron through his head. The tamping iron was 3 ½ feet long and weighed 13 pounds. The tamping iron went in point first under his left cheek bone and completely out through the top of his head, landing about 25 to 30 yards behind him. Phineas was knocked over but may not have lost consciousness even though most of the front part of the left side of his brain was destroyed.
28Phineas Gage (1848)… yes he LIVED! Phineas Gage was the foreman of a railway construction gang working for the contractors preparing the bed for the Rutland and Burlington Rail Road near Cavendish, Vermont. On 13th. September 1848, an accidental explosion of a charge he had set blew his tamping iron through his head. The tamping iron was 3 feet 7 inches long and weighed 13 1/2 pounds. It was 1 1/4 inches in diameter at one end (not circumference as in the newspaper report) and tapered over a distance of about 1-foot to a diameter of 1/4 inch at the other. The tamping iron went in point first under his left cheek bone and completely out through the top of his head, landing about 25 to 30 yards behind him. Phineas was knocked over but may not have lost consciousness even though most of the front part of the left side of his brain was destroyed.Before the accident he had been their most capable and efficient foreman, one with a well-balanced mind, and who was looked on as a shrewd smart business man. He was now fitful, irreverent, and grossly profane, showing little deference for his fellows. He was also impatient and obstinate, yet capricious and vacillating, unable to settle on any of the plans he devised for future action. His friends said he was “No longer Gage.”Read more about Gage…why was he the focus of a case study?
29Correlational Studies A procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables.Without manipulating or controlling either of themCorrelation: A measure of the strength of a relationship between two variables.Correlation indicate the strength and direction of a relationship. It allows for prediction of one variable based on the other variable.The strength of the relationship is measured by a correlation coefficient which ranges from +1 to -1+1 – perfect positive correlation0 – no correlation-1 – perfect negative correlationExample of positive correlation: The more money a family makes, the larger the home they live in.Example of negative correlation: The more money a family makes, the less their children work outside the home.Example of no correlation: People who live in rural locations are no more or less intelligent than people who live in urban locations.
30Correlational Research Example-A researcher may examine whether a toddler’s aggressiveness is related to the number of hours spent in day care.
31Correlational coefficient Correlation indicates the strength and direction of a relationship. It allows for prediction of one variable based on the other variable.The strength of the relationship is measured by a correlation coefficient which ranges from +1 to -1+1 – perfect positive correlation0 – no correlation-1 – perfect negative correlation
32Three Types of Correlation In a positive correlation, the two factors move (or vary) in the same direction.In a negative correlation, the two factors vary in opposite directions—that is, as one factor increases, the other factor decreases.Sometimes there is no relationship between two variables—a zero correlation.
33Did you get it? Let’s play Name that Correlation! Answer the following questions by identifying the correlation…either positive, negative or none
34As a child’s age increases so does her height Be able to justify this answer!
35As a child’s age increases so does her height Positive correlation!Both variables are moving in the same direction
36The more time a person spends on a treadmill the less they weigh Be able to justify your answer!
37The more time a person spends on a treadmill the less they weigh Negative correlationThe variables move in opposite directions
38Be able to justify your answer! The amount of time a college student studies and their height in inchesBe able to justify your answer!
39The amount of time a college student studies and their height in inches No correlation exists
40“Correlation is not causation!” Just because there is a correlation between tow variables does not mean that one variable causes another.
41What happens after the study is completed and the data is examined? It is time to draw a conclusion“Was I right?”
42Was my prediction correct? Researchers draw conclusions about the results of the study. Did the information support or oppose their hypothesis?Don’t forget…this information MUST be replicated to be accepted as valid.
43What happens to the information yielded in study? If the information produced in a study supports the original hypothesis it is published in the scientific community in peer-reviewed journals.This information is what we read about in textbooks and articles. This process allows researchers to generate NEW knowledge!
44Could the results of a study be BIASED? Ethics in ResearchCould the results of a study be BIASED?
45A good scientific experiment also protects against potential sources of error from both the researcher and the participantsEthnocentrism and sample bias can result in flawed data and invalid results in the study
46Avoiding Bias in Research Absolutely, YES it is possible to bias a research study. To avoid biased information, researchers must follow the rules developed by the APA.
47Ethics in ResearchEthics are the rules concerning proper and acceptable conduct that investigators use to guide their researchThese rules govern the treatment of animals, humans, and the responsibilities of investigators
48Participants must be informed One rule states human participants must give the researcher their informed consent before a study.Participants must be advised about the purpose and conditions of the study- up front.
49Ethics in ResearchParticipants cannot be coerced into doing something psychologically or physically harmful, or that violates standards of decencyAt the end of the study, participants must go through debriefing
50Why do researchers have these rules? History of controversial psychological experiments that would now be considered UNETHICAL.Examples:Phillip Zimbardo-The Stanford Prison StudyStanley Milgram- The Perils of ObedienceDespite the fascinating data produced, many of these studies are considered unethical.
51Watch the follow clip and think about why this experiment violates ethical standards of the APA