Stay focused You are the trainers, so think with the end in mind Keep sense of humor Silence cell phones Honor time limits 3
Participants will… Learn what makes a “good” intervention Understand how to use the tiered framework to provide interventions Inventory and/or develop intervention resources that align with specific skill deficits Recognize the requirement of progress monitoring in the RtI process Utilizing A 3 to document RtI
A process that uses the skills of professionals from different disciplines to develop and evaluate intervention plans that improve significantly the school performance of individual and/of groups of students.
To clearly define the problem A problem (P) is the difference between what is expected (E) and what is observed (O) P = E – O
By looking at the data of… Screening Assessments Diagnostic Assessments Progress Monitoring Assessments Summative Assessments Formative Assessments
Is this an individual student problem, or a larger, systemic problem?
Why is the problem occurring? I nstruction C urriculum E nvironment L earner
Instruction that supplements and intensifies classroom curriculum/instruction to meet student need Teach NEW skills to remediate a deficient skill Interventions are developed to help the student acquire the necessary skills to be able to eventually succeed independently
Types of Interventions Skill Deficit Student lacks skills to successfully complete task Performance Deficit Factors interfering with student’s capability of performing the skill
Must Target the missing skill(s) Include Explicit instruction Within a supported learning environment Purposeful Well-planned Based on data Focused on alterable variables within the Instruction, Curriculum, Environment
TierWhoGroupingTime 1 All studentsWhole group and small group 90 minutes a day 2 Below grade level students Small group instruction 30 minutes per day plus core instruction (2-3 days per week) 3 Severely below grade level students Small group instruction (3 -6 students) 30 minutes per day plus core instruction (5 days per week)
5th grade student reading at the 2nd grade level Tier 3 ▪ Direct Instruction, Targeted, Narrow Focus (e.g., phonemic awareness, phonics, some fluency) Tier 2 ▪ Targeted skills development to decode multisyllabic words Tier 1 ▪ Focus on comprehension, vocabulary, fluency, multisyllabic words Use core materials for content Progress monitor both instructional level and grade placement level skills
Entire staff understands “triangle” and the available interventions at each Tier Supplemental and intensive interventions are in addition to core instruction A student intervention plan is integrated across the tiers Different tiers ensure that outcomes in Tier 1 are improved Principals should ensure that intervention plans have intervention support
High quality instruction and classroom management Universal Screening to determine each student’s level of proficiency Differentiated instruction is used and student’s progress monitored Differentiation occurs in small, teacher-led flexible groups during the 90 min block
High quality classroom management Effective school-wide discipline plan and/or positive behavior support Questions to ask? Do 80-90% of students in the school respond positively to the school-wide discipline plan? Does the behavior level of the target student differ significantly from that of the peer group?
Performing below where they need to be. Need structured support over time to help them catch up to their peers. ▪ Students on track ▪ Students below grade level ▪ Students two grade levels below their peers
What is the root cause of the problem? Lack of Phonological Awareness Phonics/Decoding/Text Processing Fluency Comprehension Performance deficit or skill deficit? Without a match, student will be practicing skills that are good, but not directly related to what they need to make progress
Grouping: Fewer students than whole group Time: 30 min, 5 x week or more. Outside the core Who: Students.5 -1 year below grade level What: Very direct instruction with high intensity Progress Monitoring: Every 2-3 weeks
MATCH to student need is priority. Find the need Target the skill Remediate the deficit
Josie is a 2nd grader. AP1 FAIR scores: RC 35%; Passage 1.5 ; PSI 5/10 on skill 5. DRLA August 55% DRLA October 63%
Core Instruction: Whole group instruction for 30 minutes; Differentiated small group instruction for 15 -20 minutes Tier 2 Intervention: 30 min; 5x week; 8 students in a group; working on decoding silent e & vowel teams. Progress monitored weekly with PSI
Chantelle is a 3 rd grader, whose FAIR scores in AP 1 were RC 12%, DRLA grades are Aug. 72%, Oct. 54%, PSI results show weakness in digraphs. She is working in a group of 9 students 30 min. 3 x week receiving explicit instruction on decoding digraphs and then practicing reading decodable texts.
Carlos is a 4 th grader. His FAIR scores for AP 1 were RC 12%, Maze 20%, WA 30%. PSI shows deficit in skill 5 (silent e). He is working on decoding and comprehension skills in a group of 6 students, 20 min, 3 x week within the 90 minute reading block.
1X Phonics/decoding Intervention Teacher PSI 9/7/10 Direct instruction & practice with focus on silent – e, vowel teams X X X X October 5, 2010
Grouping: 2 – 3 students Time: 30 min, 5 x week or more. Outside the core Who: Students substantially below grade level. What: Very direct instruction with high intensity. Progress Monitoring: Once per week
MATCH to student need is priority. Find the need Target the skill Remediate the deficit
Core Instruction: Whole group instruction for 30 minutes; Differentiated small group instruction for 15 -20 minutes. Tier 3 Intervention: 30 min; 5x week; 2-3 students in a group; working on early phonemic awareness skills. Progress monitored weekly with PASI.
Aids in the analysis of inadequate progress and how to intensify instruction. Documents progress for RTI model Amount of time student received intervention Size of group Changes made to intensity Refer for evaluation
Entering Area of Concern Recording Intervention Data Recording Progress Monitoring Data and Status Updates.
What is Progress Monitoring? “An ongoing process of using student performance and other data to guide instructional and intervention decisions”
Support decision making such as whether to ▪ Continue ▪ Change or ▪ Adjust Instruction.
Must match intervention/instruction Should be a quick tool Curriculum Based Measurement – Short, quick probes based on skills Examples: Running records PASI PSI Math Probes
Assess as often as needed to inform instruction Varies by Tier Tier 1 – 3 to 4 times a year Tier 2 – 2 to 3 times a month Tier 3 – Weekly Monitoring frequency increases with instructional intensity. Serves a multifunctional purpose Establish a baseline Identify growth Measure performance over time
Use results to inform instruction Data could be graphed to provide a visual illustration of where students began (baseline), where we want them to go (target line), and performance over time (trend line)
Complete a mock intervention form as if you were the intervention teacher. What additional information would you want to know?
Alberta is a 3rd grade student who is struggling in reading. She’s a motivated, hard worker, but seems to have self-esteem issues related to her poor academics. Her class assignments and homework are completed, but are frequently inaccurate and do not reflect comprehension. Within her 90 minute reading block, she receives differentiated reading instruction where she is learning the 3 rd grade curriculum via below grade level materials. FAIR data: FSP of 13%(red zone) on AP1; MAZE 23%; WA 23% Running record: level 18 (independent). DRLA : 60% (Aug.), 45% (Oct.) PSI: Skill 5 silent-e score of 3/10 (skills 1-4 shows mastery) **Design an intervention plan. Decide on progress monitoring tool, frequency, etc. Complete a mock intervention form as if you were the intervention teacher.
When Progress Monitoring shows intervention is not effective enough Change intervention strategies Add time to intervention strategies Reduce size of intervention group Change intervention instructor
Recycle back through problem solving Is the problem correctly identified? Is the hypothesis correct? Was the intervention implemented correctly? Was the data collected correctly? Modify duration, frequency, etc. ▪ Will take time, especially if Tier 1 and Tier 2 were implemented correctly
In intervention, the target is determined from the student’s initial data point to the expected level or performance Goal Or Expected Benchmark
Decision Rules: What is a “Good” Response to Intervention? Positive Response Gap is closing Can extrapolate point at which target student(s) will “come in range” of target--even if this is long range Questionable Response Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably, but gap is still widening Gap stops widening but closure does not occur Poor Response Gap continues to widen with no change in rate.
Performance Time Positive response will meet the goal Expected Trajectory Observed Trajectory Positive Questionable Poor