Aoccdrng to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a word are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is that the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you can still raed it wouthit porbelm. This is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istief, but the word as a wlohe.
4/26/2015zentall7 Case 1 Anna, a second-grade student, during her independent reading had to use the quiet corner and read aloud to herself in order to comprehend what she was reading. She was easily distracted by noise. Anna is also disorganized (e.g., she would leave her material all over the classroom) and has the tendency to get frustrated after long periods of workbook exercises, so she need take a break.
4/26/2015zentall8 Case Questions Can Anna comprehend what she hears? Why does Anna read outloud to herself? What characteristics tell you that Anna has dyslexia, rather than ADHD? Does Anna have the potential to show behavioral problems as she advances in age?
Informal Evaluations Types of children? Good reading comprehension & poor decoding Poor comprehension but good reading decoding (Can read but doesn’t know if a word refers to a birthday cake or a tree) DJ is a little boy who has trouble with word recognition and reading. He cannot understand what he is reading when he reads it to himself. But if someone reads it to him, he can understand the story.
Case 2 During a health supervision visit, the father of a 7 1/2 year old African/American second grader asked about his son's progress in reading. He was concerned when, at a recent parent-teacher conference to review Darren's progress, the teacher remarked that Darren was not keeping up with reading skills compared to others in his class. She said that he had difficulty sounding-out some words correctly. In addition, he could not recall words he had read the day before. The teacher commented that Darren was a gregarious, friendly child with better than average verbal communication skills. His achievement at math was age appropriate; spelling was difficult for Darren with many deleted letters and reversals of written letters.
A focused history did not reveal any risk factors for a learning problem in the prenatal or perinatal periods. Early motor, language, and social milestones were achieved on time. Darren had not experienced any head injury, loss of consciousness, or chronic medical illness. He had several friends and his father denied any behavioral problems at home or at school. A DSM IV - specific behavioral survey for ADHD was completed by his teacher. It did not show any evidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Darren's father completed one year of college and is currently the manger of a neighborhood convenience store. His mother had a high school education; she recalled she found it difficult to complete assignments that required reading or writing. She is employed as a waitress. Darren does not have any siblings. The pediatrician performed a complete physical examination which was normal including visual acuity, audiomentry, and a neurological examination. It was noted that Darren seemed to pause several times in response to questions or commands. On two occasions, during finger-nose testing and a request to assess tandem gait, directions required repetition. Overall, he was pleasant and seemed to enjoy the visit. STRENGTHS TO USE IN TEACHING WEAKNESSES
4/26/2015zentall14 What are the outcomes of poor reading skills or dyslexia? academically? socially? Is Dyslexia primarily a problem of decoding or encoding? If you improved their decoding will they understand what they read? Does reading disability get better over time or is there always some disability? Does environment matter? Is having children read aloud important? Under what circumstances? Do genetics matter?
Reading Comprehension Experimental mortality threatens internal validity in that a different group composition is available at one data point than is available at the second. The researcher has little chance of knowing what the subjects look like who cannot be located. There is a rather substantial probability that those who cannot be located are different from those who can.
4/26/2015zentall16 Reading Assessment If you can’t comprehend what you read, what do you need to assess? 1. can you read (decode or recognize) words hear 2. can you comprehend what you hear
4/26/2015zentall17 Implications for Intervention Contrary to the myth, people with dyslexia CAN read However, 75% of third graders who are poor readers stay like that all the way into high school Students may learn to compensate: More likely to use context cues May have strong math skills (Berninger 2001) Children can learn to read if early intervention is implemented. 18% incidence of RD reduced to 1.4 – 5.4% (Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2003)
High Interest Reading Adventure, Sci Fi Scary, Gross Novel: Study of Fables -- 2 versions Unfamiliar animals (orangutan vs. fox) Emotional adjectives (angry vs. kind) Active verbs (swooped vs. walked) Surprise endings (cut off heads vs. walked home)
Study: Children with attention problems (AP) and reading problems (RP) Better performance with high than low interest: RP on 3 comp questions AP on 5 comp questions One comprehension question
Expressive Written Language High Level Composition Low Level Spelling Handwriting Grammar mechanics
Written Language –Why are there twice as many academic problems in written language as in reading, math, or spelling?
Working Memory Skills Are Important for Written Language Keeping ideas ‘in mind’ Written work is brief or incomplete Ordering those ideas Ideas are not clearly organized or well-developed Translating auditory thought to visual symbols (words, sentences) Mechanics (memory) –Spelling –Handwriting (construct letters) –Punctuation
Teaching Composition: Write an original story of the 3 little pigs and the wolf Self-regulated strategy training: –Modeling/Direct Instruction –Cuing and the “three little pigs” Steps: –Who (characters, feelings), –Where (setting), –What (goal, problem), How (plan, solution) Self-monitoring steps Editing (student-critic and student-writer)