Magnetic resonance imaging Analysing the water in the tissues of the body. Humans are approx. 70% water. The patient is placed within a large superconducting magnet and pulsed with radiowaves and the resulting signals analysed by computer.
Do you need a metal? No… but it helps. Gadolinium is used because of its unique properties. However it is toxic! The magnetism of the Gd disrupts the signal from the water resulting in an improved image.
Curing cancer with radioactive metals Drugs for delivery of therapeutic doses of radiation to specific disease sites.
“The first dose uses 111 In (indium-111) ibritumomab for imaging. Indium-111 emits gamma radiation, which can be picked up by the gamma camera. A scan is done to assess biodistribution of the drug. This test dose is used to determine that no excess amounts go to the marrow, liver, etc. in this particular patient. If the gamma scan shows no altered biodistribution, then the second dose is given, using 90 Y (yttrium-90) ibritumomab as the actual treatment. Yttrium-90 emits the cell-killing beta radiation.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zevalin Tiuxetan chelator
Most expensive drug!! Uses an antibody to target the cancer taking a radioactive payload with it. Zevalin-licensed (US) in 2002. Can cost as much as $24,000 for treatment
What’s new with cisplatin? We know much more about why it works! Why doesn’t the DNA damage get repaired? Following administration, one of the chloride ligands is slowly displaced by water (an aqua ligand), in a process termed aquation. The aqua ligand in the resulting [PtCl(H 2 O)(NH 3 ) 2 ] + is itself easily displaced, allowing the platinum atom to bind to bases. Of the bases on DNA, guanine is preferred. Subsequent to formation of [PtCl(guanine-DNA)(NH 3 ) 2 ] +, crosslinking can occur via displacement of the other chloride ligand, typically by another guanine. Cisplatin crosslinks DNA in several different ways, interfering with cell division by mitosis. The damaged DNA elicits DNA repair mechanisms, which in turn activate apoptosis when repair proves impossible. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisplatin