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Radiotherapy for Kidney cancer

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Presentation on theme: "Radiotherapy for Kidney cancer"— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiotherapy for Kidney cancer
Dr Kate Fife Consultant Clinical Oncologist Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge

2 Radiotherapy for Kidney cancer
What is Radiotherapy? Some history Advances in radiotherapy When is it used in cancer treatment? When is it used in kidney cancer? Some examples Questions and Answers

3 What is Radiotherapy? High energy XRays XRays interact with atoms
Direct DNA damage Ionisation of water molecules Cause DNA damage such as ‘Double strand breaks’ Cell ‘suicide’

4 Why does it work? DNA damage has to be repaired for cell to continue dividing Normal cells are good at repairing themselves Cancer cells are not Cancer cells preferentially killed Some damage to normal tissues

5 How is radiotherapy given?
Linear Accelerator produces XRays Shaped to the area to be treated ‘field’

6 Treatments Treatment planning: CT Quick and painless! Single treatment
Multiple treatments Dose and number of treatments depends on Purpose Sensitivity of tumour Sensitivity of normal tissues

7 History I XRays discovered 1895 (Roentgen)
XRays used for head and neck and skin cancers and benign conditions eg ringworm Did not penetrate deeply and high dose on the skin 1922: fractionation produced fewer side effects

8 History II Radium discovered 1898 (Curie): natural radioactive emitter
Radium used as implants for cancers of womb and other sites


10 History III Post 1945: artificially produced radioisotopes became available eg radioiodine, cobalt-60 (atomic weapon technology) 1952: First linear accelerator (LINAC) introduced Magnetron (high power electron source) developed during war for Radar

11 History III Linacs have high energy XRays which penetrate deep into body with much lower dose on skin (limiting factor with early XRay treatments) Computerisation has revolutionised treatment planning to improve accuracy, spare normal tissues and increase dose to tumour

12 Present and Future Improved planning: CT planning now routine
Intensity modulated radiotherapy: planning technique producing shaped beams of varying intensity Tomotherapy: ‘Image guided’ radiotherapy

13 Tomotherapy Combines CT and Linac
RT delivered in multiple spiral fields Allows very accurate dose delivery Daily real time CT imaging: high accuracy



16 Standard treatments Conventional planning and Linac treatment highly accurate Sufficient for most treatments

17 Use of Radiotherapy in Cancer treatment
Surgery Local treatment Early stage Radiotherapy Early and late stage Systemic therapy: early and late stage Chemotherapy Hormone therapy Targeted therapy

18 What about RT for kidney cancer
Treatment of primary tumour Usually surgery Treatment of advanced disease Usually TKIs/immunotherapy Treatment of symptoms from tumour deposits in advanced disease Radiotherapy

19 Does RT work in kidney cancer?
Many websites and medical texts say kidney cancer is resistant to radiotherapy Kidney cancers have a range of sensitivity to RT Some respond well, others not so well

20 Sites for radiotherapy
Anywhere! Bone Spine Soft tissue Lymph nodes Brain Lung Combined with surgery in some cases

21 Soft tissue chest wall

22 After RT and TKIs (4 years later….)

23 Severe pain from secondary tumour 4 months after RT

24 MRI Femur

25 Bone scan and XRay


27 Cambridge Study Over 100 radiotherapy treatments given to patients with bone or ‘soft tissue’ secondary cancers Response rate (improvement in symptoms or scans) in those reassessed after treatment was 85%

28 Could we treat the kidney tumour itself?
Previously very toxic because of normal tissue damage (bowel, liver) Probably, with new techniques… Small kidney tumours in people who can’t have surgery Tumour bed if some tumour left after surgery

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