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JAMRS In-Depth Applicant Study: Recruiting Experiences by Race/Ethnicity.

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Presentation on theme: "JAMRS In-Depth Applicant Study: Recruiting Experiences by Race/Ethnicity."— Presentation transcript:

1 JAMRS In-Depth Applicant Study: Recruiting Experiences by Race/Ethnicity

2 1 JAMRS – Who We Are Secretary of Defense Mr. Leon Panetta Deputy Secretary of Defense Mr. William J. Lynn USD (Personnel and Readiness) Dr. Jo Ann Rooney DASD (Military Personnel Policy) Ms. Virginia Penrod Accession Policy Director Dr. Curt Gilroy Director, JAMRS Mr. Matt Boehmer Fiscal Chief SSgt Kelvin Jones, USMC Statistician Ms. Andrea Zucker PR/INT Special Projects Ms. Heather Pope Contractors Market Research Dr. Sean Marsh Mr. Jason Fors Dr. Brian Griepentrog Dr. Bryan Wiggins Dr. Scott Turner Chief of Joint Advertising Mr. Brad Terrill Direct Marketing Officer Capt Alan Fairley, USMC Interactive Officer LT Ysabel Vandeputte, USCG DHRA Director Ms. Sharon Cooper Chief of Market Research Dr. Katie Helland Market Research Officer LT Brian Caldwell, USN Principal Research Scientist Dr. Taylor Poling

3 2 JAMRS – Who We Are Principal Research Scientist Dr. Taylor Poling Principal Research Scientist Dr. Taylor Poling

4 3 JAMRS – Who We Are Secretary of Defense Mr. Leon Panetta Deputy Secretary of Defense Mr. William J. Lynn USD (Personnel and Readiness) Dr. Clifford L. Stanley DUSD (Military Personnel Policy) Ms. Lynn C. Simpson Accession Policy Director Dr. Curt Gilroy Director, JAMRS Mr. Matt Boehmer TWI Officer LTC Tad Fichtel, USAR Fiscal Chief GY SGT Tim Ussery, USMC Statistician Ms. Andrea Zucker PR/INT Special Projects Ms. Heather Pope Contractors Market Research Dr. Sean Marsh Dr. Scott Turner Mr. Ricardo Carvalho Ms. Fahima Vakalia Chief of Joint Advertising Mr. Brad Terrill Direct Marketing Officer Capt Alan Fairley, USMC Interactive Officer LT Ysabel Vandeputte, USCG DHRA Director Ms. Sharon Cooper Chief of Market Research Dr. Katie Helland Principal Research Scientist Dr. Taylor Poling Principal Research Scientist Dr. Taylor Poling Market Research Officer LT Brian Caldwell, USN Market Research Officer LT Brian Caldwell, USN

5 4 Programs JAMRS is composed of three main programs:  JAMRS Recruiting Database Provides the Services with over 12 million recruitment-age names annually to help fuel their direct marketing and recruitment efforts.  Marketing Communication Creates a receptive recruiting environment by promoting the value of military service to Influencers.  Market Research and Studies Perform research studies that enable the Services to make informed, research-based recruiting decisions and eliminate redundancies across the recruiting communities.

6 5 Applicant Study Overview

7 6  Background  Shared service priority on recruiting and retaining a qualified and racially/ethnically diverse force.  Propensity to serve is higher for some racial/ethnic minority groups, but conversion of these propensed youth often lags that of propensed White youth.  Purpose  Provide the Services with research-based insights on attraction, recruitment, and accession process factors that may vary by racial/ethnic subgroup.  Study Objectives To better understand the unique issues of African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White youth that promote them to join or deter them from joining the Military. To examine African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White applicants’ perceptions of the Military as an employer and their recruiting experience. Study Overview

8 7 In-Depth study methodology Focal Topics: Reasons for applying among military applicants Perceptions of discrimination Fairness and satisfaction with recruiting experiences Recruiter-applicant race/ethnicity match Fairness as a predictor of voluntary withdrawal among long-term applicants Conclusions Briefing Outline

9 8 Methodology

10  A stratified sample of 56,097 applicants was drawn from the sampling frame provided by USMEPCOM. African American, Hispanic, and Asian applicants were over-sampled to achieve the goals of the study.  Applicants were surveyed approximately two weeks after their application (Phase 1); respondents to the Phase 1 survey who had not yet joined the Military were surveyed again four months later (Phase 2).  The Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys were both administered through both Web- and mail- based options and included four mailings: (1) pre-notification letter, (2) survey package, (3) reminder/thank-you letter, and (4) a second survey package (to those who had not yet responded).  For each Phase, surveys were sent out every two weeks for 38 weeks (19 weeks of applicants).  Data collection periods: Phase 1: September 2009 – June 2010 Phase 2: January 2010 – October Methodology: Applicant Survey *Note: Applicants included individuals who completed USMEPCOM Form 680-3A-E between September 4, 2009 and May 28, 2010.

11  Final unweighted sample sizes:  Weighting The data were weighted to be representative of the military applicant population (applying between September 2009 and May 2010) Weighting procedures included post-stratification based on population estimates provided by USMEPCOM. See the In-Depth Applicant Survey Technical Report posted on dmren.org for more details on weighting. 10 Sample and Weighting: Applicant Survey

12  11 Reasons for Applying

13 12 Reasons for Applying among Applicants By Race/Ethnicity WhiteBlackAsianHispanic Pay/money55%62%56% Pay for education56%63% 62% Benefits (e.g., healthcare, retirement)56%57%65%57% Potential to travel52%55%53% Work skills/job training59%63%66%62% Duty to country64%41%57%54% Pride/self-esteem59%45%61%56% Job security43%46%45%44% Develop leadership48% 52%51% Physical challenge54%45%53%54% Develop discipline49% 54%53% Unable to find a job11%17%12%11% Opportunity for teamwork35%32%41%37% Get away from neighborhood16%27%15%17% Family history of service29%21%19% = Top 3 reasons  White applicants most often cite duty and pride followed by job training as reasons for applying while non-white applicants most often apply for financial and job training benefits. Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study

14  13 Perceived Discrimination

15 14  Across all racial/ethnic groups, applicants perceived the lowest levels of discrimination in their branch against Whites and the highest levels of discrimination in their branch against Middle Easterners.  African American, Asian, and Hispanic applicants tended to perceive higher levels of discrimination against minority groups in their branch than White applicants. How much discrimination do you believe exists in this branch against the following groups… Perceived Discrimination: In the Military By Race/Ethnicity % Some/A Great Deal Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic

16 15  All applicants perceived more discrimination in American society than in the Military.  The majority of applicants perceived that some/a great deal of discrimination exists against African Amercians, Hispanics, and Middle Easterners in American society. How much discrimination do you believe exists in American society against the following groups… Perceived Discrimination: In American Society By Race/Ethnicity % Some/A Great Deal =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study

17 16  Approximately two-thirds of African American and Hispanic applicants and half of White and Asian applicants thought that discrimination against their group is higher in American society than in their branch of the Military. Perceived discrimination against own group Perceived Discrimination Comparison By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study

18 17  Minority group racial/ethnic applicants were more likely to believe that members of their own race/ethnicity would be more likely to get a good paying job or be promoted than other groups. Perceived Discrimination: Specific Job Decisions By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study % More likely/Much more likely Compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the Military, how likely is it that a member of my own racial/ethnic group would…

19 18  Unfortunately, racial/ethnic minority group applicants more often believed they were more likely to be injured in combat or assigned to the frontlines than other racial/ethnic group members. Perceived Discrimination: Specific Job Decisions By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study % More likely/Much more likely Compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the Military, how likely is it that a member of my own racial/ethnic group would…

20 19 Recruiting Experiences

21 20 Procedural Fairness Interactional Fairness  The procedures used were fair  The procedures used to pre-qualify me were fair  The process was conducted in a timely manner  You had the opportunity to express views / feelings  The procedures used were fair  The procedures used to pre-qualify me were fair  The process was conducted in a timely manner  You had the opportunity to express views / feelings The recruiter…  Treated me with respect  Seemed willing to help me  Explained the procedures fully  Communicated in a timely manner  Was honest in his/her communications The recruiter…  Treated me with respect  Seemed willing to help me  Explained the procedures fully  Communicated in a timely manner  Was honest in his/her communications Recruitment Satisfaction: An Organizational Fairness Framework

22 21 Procedural & Interactional Fairness: Phase 1 By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study Mean applicant ratings for procedural and interactional fairness  Generally, White and Hispanic applicants were more satisfied with the application procedures and recruiter interactions than African American and Asian applicants.  For all racial/ethnic groups, the frequency of recruiter contact positively predicted both procedural and interactional fairness.

23 22  White applicants tended to have more frequent contact with their recruiter than minority applicants; African American and Hispanic applicants were more likely than White and Asian applicants to not have talked with a recruiter in the past month. Within the past month, how many times have you interacted with your military recruiter from this branch (e.g., in person, phone, , instant message, text message)? Frequency of Recruiter Interaction: Phase 1 By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study

24 23 Recruiter and Applicant Race/Ethnicity Match

25 24  White applicants were the most likely to have a recruiter of the same race, with three-quarters reporting that their primary recruiter was White.  Asian applicants were the least likely to report that their primary recruiter was of their same race (20%). Comparison of Recruiter and Applicant Race/Ethnicity By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study Applicants who reported their recruiter was of their race/ethnicity

26 25  For racial/ethnic minority applicants, having a recruiter of their same race did not improve their satisfaction with that recruiter.  White applicants were slightly more satisfied with same-race recruiters, while Hispanic applicants were slightly less satisfied with same-ethnicity recruiters. Recruiter Satisfaction and Race/Ethnicity Match By Race/Ethnicity Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study Recruiter Satisfaction Mean Scores = Sig. different than ‘no match’ Applicant-Recruiter Match Applicant-Recruiter NO Match

27 26 Long-Term Applicants & Voluntary Withdrawal

28 27 Voluntary Withdrawal Joiners  The chart below shows the final status of ‘long-term’ applicants as 1 year after applying.  Long-term applicants are those who remain in the application or DEP process for more than 4 months after applying. Final Status of Long-Term Applicants Long-Term Applicant Final Status By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Hispanic =significantly higher than Black Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study

29 28 Procedural & Interactional Fairness: Phase 2 By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study Mean applicant ratings for procedural and interactional fairness  Among long-term applicants, no significant racial/ethnic differences in mean fairness ratings emerged.

30 29 Procedural & Interactional Fairness: Phase 1 & 2 By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study Mean applicant ratings for procedural and interactional fairness  For all long-term applicants, fairness perceptions worsen over time compared to their perceptions at Phase 1.  No significant racial/ethnic differences in mean fairness ratings emerged. Phase 1 Phase 2

31 30  Perceived fairness predicts voluntary withdrawal among White, African American, and Hispanic long-term applicants; however, the impact of these fairness facets differ by racial/ethnic group.  For White applicants, an increase in satisfaction with procedures improves the likelihood of joining vs. withdrawal.  For minority group applicants, improving their satisfaction with recruiter interactions improves the likelihood of joining vs. withdrawal. Predicting Joining vs. Withdrawal: Long-Term Applicants By Race/Ethnicity Logistic Regression Model of Impact of Fairness Perceptions on Voluntary Withdrawal among Long-Term Applicants

32 31 Summary & Recommendations

33 32 Summary & Recommendations Racial/ethnic minority applicants still perceive that the Military assigns minority group members to dangerous roles disproportionately. The Services must make concerted efforts in their outreach and public affairs campaigns to counter the misinformation that may be causing these negative assumptions to exist. Procedural and interactional fairness perceptions decrease with increased time in the DEP. It is critical that recruiters stay in contact and develop strategies to mitigate frustration. Recruiters need to be as open and honest as possible about the enlistment process and time in DEP up front so applicants have a realistic expectation about when they will access. Procedural and interactional fairness perceptions predict withdrawal among long-term applicants. The impact of each differs by race/ethnicity. The process of enlistment must be clearly and carefully explained and recruiter interactions should be frequent, honest, and helpful. Be mindful of the aspects that may be more important to applicants in different racial/ethnic groups. Recruiter-applicant race/ethnicity match does not improve experiences among racial/ethnic minorities. Worry less about matching recruiter-applicant race/ethnicity and more about selection and/or training strategies that improve recruiter competency and interpersonal skills.

34 DMREN.ORG  JAMRS’ program password protected website providing comprehensive research offerings to expand DoD’s knowledge of its target markets  Detailed information of JAMRS outreach efforts  Ongoing communication about most recent study updates and research findings  Register at

35 34 Back Up

36 35 General Recommendations Emphasize fit information Provide details about the job and organization Select and train recruiters Treat applicants with fairness and respect Use-job related procedures and explain the purpose of the selection process Articulate the right employer brand image Create a unified, consistent, and coherent recruiting campaign Ployhart, R.E. (2006). Staffing in the 21 st Century: New challenges and strategic opportunites. Journal of Management, 32,

37 36 Service of Interest By Race/Ethnicity Which Service/Component of the Military did you apply to? Q2_1: Which Service/Component of the Military did you apply to? (Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard, Army Reserve, Army National Guard, Navy Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard, Coast Guard Reserve) WhiteBlackAsianHispanic Army33%31% 27% Navy13%16%21%20% Marine Corps13%7%10%13% Air Force13% 11%12% Coast Guard1% Army Reserve4%6% 5% Army National Guard16%17%9%12% Navy Reserve1% 2%1% Marine Corps Reserve2%1%2% Air Force Reserve2%3%2% Air National Guard2%1%2%1% Coast Guard Reserve< 1% 2%1% =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study Top 2 Services/Components for each race/ethnic group The Army had the highest proportions of applicants across all groups, followed by the Army National Guard for White and Black applicants and the Navy for Asian and Hispanic applicants.

38 37 Unweighted Demographics 50% FEMALE Region Age 50% MALE Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study  The majority of respondents were male (77%) and the average age of respondents was 22 years.  Respondents were from across the U.S. and its territories, with approximately two-fifths of respondents coming from the South. Gender, age, and region data provided by USMEPCOM. Note: Numbers may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

39 38  The majority of applicants indicated that they were satisfied with their recruiter.  Black applicants had significantly lower levels of satisfaction with their recruiter than White, Asian, or Hispanic applicants. Overall, how satisfied have you been with your recruiter? Satisfaction with Recruiter By Race/Ethnicity =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study Q43_1: Overall, how satisfied have you been with your recruiter? (Very satisfied, Satisfied, Neither satisfied or dissatisfied, Dissatisfied, Very dissatisfied) % Satisfied/Very Satisfied

40 39  Overall, applicants were satisfied with their interactions with their primary recruiter.  White applicants reported significantly higher levels of agreement with all items than Black applicants.  All items assessing recruiter interactions were significantly correlated with joining the Military vs. voluntarily withdrawing from the recruiting process; however, the strongest predictor was whether or not the recruiter explained the procedures fully. Satisfaction with Recruiter Interaction By Race/Ethnicity Q_44_1: To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements regarding your interaction with your military recruiter? (Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly disagree) =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study % Agree/Strongly AgreeWhiteBlackAsianHispanic The recruiter treated me with respect. 96%95% 97% The recruiter seemed willing to help me. 94%91%92%93% The recruiter explained the procedures fully. 89%86%87%88% The recruiter communicated information in a timely manner. 89%85% 87% The recruiter was honest in his/her communications with me. 92%88%89%91% To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements regarding your interaction with your military recruiter?

41 40  White applicants were more likely to agree that the recruiting procedures were fair than minority applicants.  Across all racial/ethnic groups, applicants were least likely to agree that “the overall process was conducted in a timely manner.” Satisfaction with Recruiting Procedures By Race/Ethnicity Q_45_1: Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with the following statements regarding the military recruiting process. (Strongly agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly disagree) =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study % Agree/Strongly AgreeWhiteBlackAsianHispanic The procedures used were fair. 89%83%85%86% The overall process was conducted in a timely manner. 75%73% 75% You have the opportunity to express your views and feelings about the recruiting process. 80%75%74%76% The procedures used by the recruiter to pre-qualify me for the Military were fair. 92%87%88%90% Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with the following statements regarding the military recruiting process.

42 41  Applicants with less frequent recruiter interactions were more likely to voluntarily drop out of the recruiting process than those with more interactions.  Across all racial/ethnic groups, applicants who spoke to their recruiter 2 or more times in the previous month had the highest proportion of accessions. Percent of Applicants who Accessed into the Military (vs. Voluntarily Withdrew) by Frequency of Recruiter Interaction Frequency of Recruiter Interaction and Accession By Race/Ethnicity Q37_1: Within the past month, how many times have you interacted with your military recruiter from this branch (e.g., in person, phone, , instant message, text message)? (Have not talked to a recruiter in the past month, 1 time, 2 – 4 times, 5 – 9 times, 10 times or more) Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study

43 42 While in the DEP, how many times per week on average have you interacted or did you interact with your military recruiter (e.g., in person, phone, , instant message, text message)? Frequency of Recruiter Interaction: Phase 2 By Race/Ethnicity Q7_2:) While in the DEP, how many times per week on average have you interacted or did you interact with your military recruiter (e.g., in person, phone, , instant message, text message)? =significantly higher than White =significantly higher than Black =significantly higher than Asian=significantly higher than Hispanic Source: DoD In-Depth Applicant Study


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